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Transcript of Motown
Smokey Robinson and the Miracles
Michael Jackson and the Jackson 5
Martha and the Vandellas
The Marvelettes Berry Gordy Jr. Impact on 1960's Society Significant People and Motown Groups Motown music originated from Motown Records in Detroit, Michigan. The founder, Berry Gordy Jr., combined different kinds of music such as: rhythm, blues and pop, gospel rhythms, and modern ballad harmony. Motown was a play on words of Detroit's nickname of the time, "Motortown." Berry Gordy Jr.
The Four Tops Early Years Born in Detroit, Michigan in 1929
grew up in the city’s black housing projects
aspirations to be a boxer and songwriter
Opened up a record store in Detroit after returning home from serving in the war in 1953
mostly had jazz records in stock
no new songs and popular music
soon went bankrupt
Realized that people were becoming
more interested in “race music” -- a.k.a.
rhythm and blues or rock ‘n’ roll grew up in the city’s black housing projects
aspirations to be a boxer and songwriter mostly had jazz records in stock
no new songs and popular music
soon went bankrupt in 1955 Up and Coming Years Got a job at the Ford Motor Company as an assembly line worker -- came up with songs and tunes in his head during these boring days at work
Some local singers and bands asked Gold if they could record his
Decided to rent a studio and hire his own musicians to record his songs so that they turned out how he wanted them to
Soon sold some of his songs to Decca records
People began to know Gold songs
In 1959 Gordy founded his own recording company, Motown, in Detroit
Consisted of several young, extraordinary black musicians
In just a few years, Motown was able to expand Some local singers and bands asked Gordy if they could record his songs Soon sold some of his songs to Decca records
People began to know Gordy’s songs Consisted of several young, extraordinary black musicians covered areas such as recording,
and scouting, and talent training Diana Ross and
The Supremes Diana Ross' Early Beginnings The Supremes Success of the Supremes Motown's Impact on the civil rights Movement Motown's Impact on other music in the 1960s Born in Detroit, Michigan in 1944
Developed an interest in music
Joined a quartet, and formed the Primettes
Participated in many talent contests, occasional night clubs, special events
The Primettes got an audition with Gordy’s studio
Shortly after, McGlown left the group
at the end of the summer of 1960 and
was replaced by Barbara Martin Began singing by mouthing the lyrics to songs
played on her record player
Inspired by Etta James and other artists Mary Wilson, Florence Ballard, Diana Ross, Betty McGlown Although impressed by the Primettes, decided they were too young -- wanted them to finish high school The founder of Motown, Berry Gordy Jr., created Motown with the goal to blur the lines between what was originally associated as "white music" and "black music" Primettes were able to release a single on the Lu-Pine Records
Occasionally sang background vocals for artists
January 1961: signed a recording contract with Gordy’s company and became the Supremes
1962: Martin left the group and the Supremes became a trio rather than a quartet
1961-1963: the Supremes released 8 singles, none reaching the Top 40
1963: Gordy decided to focus mainly on the Supremes
Early 1964: Diana Ross had become the exclusive lead singer "Tears of Sorrow," led sung by Ross
"Pretty Baby," led sung by Wilson The Supremes growing impatient and frustrated In 1964, the Supremes became increasingly popular Spring 1964: “Where Did our Love Go?,” #1 hit on pop chart
September 1964: "Baby Love," #1 hit on pop chart
October 1964: “Come See about Me," #1 hit on pop chart
March 1965: “Stop! In the Name of Love,” #1 hit on pop chart
1965: “Back in My Arms Again," #1 hit on pop chart
1965: "Baby Love," Grammy Award Nomination for Best Rhythm and Blues Recording
1966: "Stop! in the Name of Love," Nomination for Best Contemporary Rock ‘n’ Roll Group Vocal Performance
1966: "The Supremes A Go-Go" was the first album by an all-female group to reach the top Billboard pop album chart
Late 1966-Early 1967: "I Hear a Symphony," "You Can't Hurry Love," "You Keep Me Hangin' On," "Love is Here and Now You're Gone," "The Happening," all top hits
12 top hits in 5 years! [not listed above: "Love Child" and "Someday We'll be Together"] The Latter Years of the Supremes Ross and Gordy grew closer and developed a "personal relationship" after Gordy split with his wife
In 1967, Ballard left the Supremes and was replaced by Cindy Birdsong
Gordy changed the name of the group to “Diana Ross and The Supremes”
In 1969, Ross left the Supremes to pursue her career as a solo artist Mary Wilson Diana Ross Florence Ballard The Supremes Performing, "Where Did our Love Go?" WORK CITED: The Temptations Formation of the Temptations School classmates, Eddie Kendricks and Paul Williams, joined the Primes doo-wop trio vocal group based in Detroit in the mid-late 1950s
Meanwhile in 1957, Elbridge Bryant and Otis William formed their own Detroit based group called the Elegants
The Elegants gained new members in 1959 -- Melvin Franklin, Richard Street, and Albert Harrell -- and then changed their name to the Questions
The Questions later became the Distants when recording for Northern Records
The Distants later merged
with the Primes The Road to Fame Primes signed a recording contract with Motown Records shortly after Richard Street left the group
In 1961, the Primes were renamed to the Temptations
The Temptations struggled for three years to achieve their fame
Songwriter and producer, Smokey Robinson, helped the Temptations reach their stardom with the pop hit, “They Way You Do the Things You Do” Smokey Robinson wrote a lot of the Temptations’ songs Elbridge Bryant had left the group in 1963, and was replaced by David Ruffin David Ruffin Smokey Robinson The Latter Years of the Temptations The music style of the Temptations moved away from doo-wop, and in a more soul direction
Ruffin sang lead on most songs
In 1968, new lead singer Dennis Edwards changed the groups course from soul to rock
In the early ‘70s the Temptations broke up
Eddie Kendricks tried to pursue a solo career
Paul Williams left due to an alcohol problem and died two years later
The Temptations slowly fell off the charts Hit Songs of the Temptations 1964: “The Way You Do the Things You Do”
1964: “My Girl”
1966: “Ain’t Too Proud to Be”
1966: “Beauty is Only Skin Deep”
1966: “(I Know) I’m Losing You”
1967: “All I Need”
1967: “You’re My Everything”
1968: “I Wish It Would Rain”
1968: “I’m Going to Make You Love Me”
1969-1970: "Cloud Nine," "Run Away Child, Running Wild," "I Can't Get Next to You," "Psychedelic Shack," and "Ball of Confusion." well known for its bass opening by James Jamerson, a Motown bass player Teamed up with Diana Ross and the Supremes to create this hit
Kendricks sang lead vocals Brian Holland, Edward Holland Jr., and Lamont Dozier (Holland-Dozier-Holland) composed 10 out of the 12 top hit songs for the Supremes Batchelor, Bob. "Soul Music in the 1960s." Pop Culture Universe: Icons, Idols, Ideas. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 May 2013.
"Berry Gordy Jr." Pop Culture Universe: Icons, Idols, Ideas. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 May 2013.
Davidson, Arden. "The Social Impact of Motown Music in American." Helium. N.p., 20 Sept. 2009. Web.
8 May 2013. <http://www.helium.com/items/1571515-motowns-impact-on-society>.
DeMain, Bill. "Marvin Gaye's "What's Going On"" Performing Songwriter. Performing Songwriter, 31 Mar. 2013. Web. 08 May 2013.
"Diana Ross and the Supremes." The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll. N.p.: n.p., 2001. Rolling Stone. Jann S. Wenner. Web.
8 May 2013. <http://www.rollingstone.com/music/artists/diana-ross-and-the-supremes/biography>.
Havraneck, Carrie. "Diana Ross." Pop Culture Universe: Icons, Idols, Ideas. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 May 2013.
Nantais, David E. "That Motown sound: Berry Gordy Jr. and the African-American experience." America 16 Feb. 2009: 22+. U.S. History
In Context. Web. 8 May 2013.
Pomoni, Christina. "The Social Impact of Motown Music in American Culture." The Social Impact of Motown Music in American Culture.
N.p., 9 Sept. 2009. Web. 8 May 2013.
Talevski, Nick. "Marvin Gaye." Pop Culture Universe: Icons, Idols, Ideas. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 May 2013.
Talevski, Nick. "The Temptations." Pop Culture Universe: Icons, Idols, Ideas. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 May 2013. The "Motown Sound" The “Motown Sound” was music filled with energy and emotion
It was known for its gospel voices, tambourines, chord and horn sections, and melodic bass slides, all put together in an innovative pop production
it was a mix of percussion riffs and rhythmic drum breaks, along with disco and hip-hop elements Creation of Motown Record Label Berry Gordy Jr. started in the music industry as an owner of a record shop. There he mostly sold jazz, and because of this the business went bankrupt quickly. Gordy realized what people really wanted in music: rock n' roll, blues and soul. Thus, the creation of his own record label began. He and his co-worker, Smokey Robinson recorded and produced multiple songs. They were an immediate hit and the Motown record label became very successful. Gordy went on to work with many large names in the music industry including Diana Ross and The Supremes, The Temptations, Stevie Wonder and many more. Marvin Gaye How Motown Changed the Meaning of Music It was known for its artistic expression of the black community
expressed political speech and opposition to discrimination
Motown emphasized community life as well as race relations as a way to make an impact on social structure and popular music Early Years of Marvin Gaye Born in 1939
Had a strict and abusive father
1959: joined the D.C. Tones in high school -- played the piano
Joined the air force, but later got an honorable discharge
Joined the Marquees, a doo-wop vocal group
The Marquees ended up replacing Harvey Fuqua’s back group, the Moonglows Marvin Gaye's Involvement with Motown Records Co-wrote "Mama Loocie" with Fuqua and sang solo lead vocals for the first time
Went to Detroit with Fuqua--launched and then sold a pair of labels, “Harvey” and “Tri-Phi” to Berry Gordy
Became a session drummer for Motown, and then later a songwriter Marvin Gaye's Career How the Civil Rights influenced the creation of Motown 1963: First success, “Hitch-Hike” (co-written)
1963: First Top-10 Hit, “Pride and Joy”
Mid - ’60s Hits: “I’ll be Doggone” and “Ain’t that Peculiar”
1968: “I heard it through the Grapevine," most popular song of his
Had several duet partners Mary Wells, Kim Weston, Diana Ross
Tammi Terrell How Motown got involved in the Civil Rights Movement Motown was the first record label owned by an African-American, Berry Gordy Jr.
as a result, Motown was associated with black civil rights struggle
Motown became a way to show black pride and self-expression
One of Motown’s greatest contributions to the civil rights movement was the recording of Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I have a Dream” speech
Berry Gordy Jr. understood the significance of that moment and recorded it so that every child (black or white) could listen to history
Until then, Motown hadn’t been involved in political issues, but as it began releasing more songs such as, “Down to Earth” by Stevie Wonder (1966), “Love Child” by The Supremes (1968), “War” by Edwin Starr (1969), and “What’s Going On?” by Marvin Gaye (1971), Motown established a new trend for message songs The End of an Era Because of the Civil Rights Movement in America during the fifties, Berry Gordy, an African American, was able to pursue his interests and start a successful business without the fear or being shut down by racial inequality. With help of the Civil Rights Movement, Motown because as big of an industry it is today. “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” (1967)
“Ain’t Nothing Like the Real Thing” (1968)
“You’re All I Need to Get By” (1968)
At a concert in 1967, Terrell collapsed in Gaye’s arms as she was extremely sick Riots in Detroit in 1967 led Motown to produce music suggesting radical sentiments and drastic actions
because the riots were centered around classes and not race, the music ended up undermining Motown’s original goal of improving the black community Latter Years of Marvin Gaye Went through a dark phase in his life full of tragedy, and produced the album, "What’s Going On", which was an expression of his emotions at the time Tammi Terrell passed away from a brain tumor
Gaye’s brother returned home from the Vietnam War with horrific stories
Gordy saw this album as a collection of protest songs
Motown artists were taught to avoid controversial topics and social issues
Consisted of songs radically different than
the ones of his before
Motown reluctantly produced the album
since it did not really fit in with the type
of music they were known for
Resulted in surprise hits: “Mercy Mercy Me”
and “What’s Going On” How other styles of music influenced Motown Motown owes much of it's success to previous musicians. James Brown, often referred to the King of Soul, made both soul and African American music very popular. Motown incorporated many styles of soul, but with a unique sound; Gordy attempted to create a sound that mixed soul and pop. At this time, many white Americans were becoming more interested with Motown's signature sound. Without the help of previous artists, however, this success would not be possible. http://tucsoncitizen.com/retroflections/?attachment_id=336
http://www.nationalbuildingmuseum.net/Large%20Images/Detroit_Vergara/G10-No-Dry-Bones-2012.jpg Image URL Citations Image URL Citations Continued Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell Performing, "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" The Temptations Performing, "My Girl" Video URL Citations YouTube
(see sheet for actual URLS)