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Harty WHAP

on 20 November 2013

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Transcript of Islam

Islamic scholars made important contributions in mathematics, science, and architecture
Math—Arab scholars develop Arabic numerals & advance geometry & algebra
Arts & Crafts—forbid images of god or people, focused on design and creation of textiles, rugs and leather
Medicine—detailed study of anatomy, diagnosis of several diseases
Architecture—built palaces and mosques
Arab Cultural Achievements
Umayyad Caliph—expansion through war
Abbasid Caliph—expansion through trade
As Islam expands caliphs enslave or convert people to Islam
Eventually all people are treated equally, Jews and Christians are permitted to self-govern themselves but had to pay tax

The Caliphates
Caliphs—Muslim leader who succeeds Muhammed
Within 100 years Caliphates control Middle East, North Africa, Spain
Division of Islam
Most Muslims (Sunnis) follow Umayyad Caliph, a small group (Shiites) only agree to follow descendants of Mohammed
The Caliphates
Islam unites Arab tribes with religion and new language (Arabic)
Islam spreads from Middle East out to North Africa and Spain
Halted at Battle of Tours in Spain
Islam spreads
Rise of Islam

Arabs absorbed culture of Rome, Greece, Persians, Jews & Byzantines
Empire became large trading area for goods from Asia, Africa, and Europe
Arabic becomes the common language of the empire
Seljuk Turks and Crusades lead to decline of Empire
Golden age of Muslim Culture
Muslims worship god directly (no clergy)
Five Pillars of Islam (basic religious duties that all Muslims must fulfill to strengthen faith)
Faith in one God(No God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet)
Prayer (must face east toward Mecca and pray 5 times a day)
Charity (give money to the poor & mosque)
Fasting (Ramadan—no food or drink during daylight)
Pilgrimage (must make religious trip to Mecca)

The Five Pillars of Islam

The Holy Book of Islam, believe that it is the words that God revealed to Mohammed
Has 114 chapters that cover forms of worship, conduct, treatment of women
Fundamental doctrine:”There is no God but Allah, and Muhammed is his prophet

The Quran (Koran)

Islam is founded by Muhammed
Selected as a messenger to preach faith in Allah, the one true God
Muhammed flees to city of Medina (marks the beginning of Muslim calendar), raises an army to retake Mecca and wage holy war or jihad
Two years after victory he dies, by this time most tribes in Arabia had converted to Islam
Mohammed: The Prophet of Islam

Due to war in the Arabian Peninsula, trade is rerouted to different land and sea routes
Cities rise up to meet new routes, one of these was Mecca or Makkah
Mecca becomes the starting point of a new religion in the 7th century: Islam (submission to the will of god)
Warm Up
List two things you know about Islam
Full transcript