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Bats

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by

Frank Rapp

on 5 June 2013

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Transcript of Bats

Template by Missing Link
Images from Shutterstock.com Bats Nature's Bug Zappers Classification Kingdom = Animalia
Phylum = Chordata
Class = Mammalia
Infraclass = Eutheria (Greek for true/good beasts)
Suborder = Laurasiatheria
Not with rats like humans but with horses, dolphins, cats and dogs
Order = Chiroptera (Greek for "hand" and "wing") Anatomy and Physiology Introduction Classification
Evolution & Populations
Anatomy and Physiology
Behavior & Reproduction
Flight
Echolocation
Habitat
Threats
Benefits
Conservation Short neck compacts center of gravity

One way valves in arteries as well as veins - hanging

Some have very long tongues to reach nectar

Thumb claw

Very low extremity muscle mass

Bats can see
Species dependent on how well
Some detect ultraviolet light Flying As determined by fossil find in 2003 of under developed cochlea membrane

Only mammal capable of true flight

Speeds up to 50mph
open or closed range
Most avg 8mph

Can out maneuver birds

Capable of turns at 200 degree per sec

Can generate lift on the up beat 1240 species worldwide
Account for 20% of all classified mammals
Two subspecies
Megachiroptera (megabats) - fruit eating bats - less specialized
Microchiroptera (microbats) - Echolocating - more specialized
70% of all bats are insectivores
Most of remaining are fruit eating
Three species that eat fish and are parasitic blood eating
Smallest bat is Kitti's hog-nosed bat of Thailand and Burma

Length = 29-34mm Wingspan = 15cm Weight = 2-2.6g

Smallest mammal in the world with Etruscan shrew


Largest bat is Giant Golden-Crowned Flying Fox of the Philippines

Wingspan = 1.7meters Weight = 1.6kg

Facing extinction from poaching Size Range Southern Appalachian Bats 13 Species
2 are endangered
Townsend Big Ear Bat
Indiana Myotis

1 visits seasonally
Silver Haired Bat North Carolina Bats 16 species from coast to mountains
1 is endangered
Indiana Myotis Evolution 26 families evolved from land mammals at end of Eocene period 33.5 MYA

Modern bat similar to its ancestors

Evolved quickly and little change since Population Bat Wing Construction Elongated phalanges

Flexible with low levels of calcium that
flatten bones

Reversed patella to form tail section

Patagium is highly vascular sheet of muscle that tears easily - but regrows

Surface of wing is covered with elastic fibers and Merkel cells Why do bats hang upside down? Mostly has to do with take-off or launch
Patella is flipped
Legs to short to run
Not enough muscle in hind legs to jump
So they drop into flight

Also...
Avoid prey during day
No competition for roosting spot
Fast getaway
Wake up fast Why don't they fall when sleeping? Tendons in claw of foot are attached to the upper body instead of a muscle in the leg.

The bat...
1. Fly's into position
2. Pulls claw open to grab a grip point
3. Relaxes
The weight of the bat pulls the tendon to close the claw Which came first?

Flying

or

Echolocation Remember this? Gravity countered with light weight
Drag countered with wing size, shape, movement and adaptations
Drag increases at a faster rate with speed
Low center of gravity
Aspect ratio of 6:2 (width to height) Wing Beat With body straight,
reaches far out
in front of head and cambers the wing Pulls down and
back with
cambered wing In mid upstroke
wing is
folded close
to the body 1 2 3 Wing is snapped up and out for next beat 4 Echolocation Depends on species of bat and their diet
Megabats do not use it

High frequency sound emitted by larynx (11khz - 212khz)
Returns to one ear before the other - direction
Provides a mental sound map
Small prey needs high frequency

Bandwidth is also needed
overcomes atmospheric conditions
separates prey from background Two different cycles Low Duty Cycles
Short duration
Keeps bat from going deaf
Allows for return from prey
Prevents overlap
Quickens as it gets closer to prey
Up to 200 pulses per second High Duty Cycles
Extremely specialized
Long pulses at extremely high frequency
Rely on Doppler shift of echo
Must adjust to account for flight speed
Must decipher overlap of echos quickly
Used more in open areas Merkel Cells Similar to our fingertips
Have hair in the center
Highly sensitive to air flowing over wing Study by John Zook at Ohio University Bat Behavior Nocturnal (of course)
Some are migratory
Travel hundreds of kilometers
Experience torpor during cold and waking during warm days
Colonial
Can be up to millions of bats
Hibernate
up to 6 months
Communicate with each other with sound
Life span of 20 - 30 years
Do not like to fly in the rain or full moon Reproduction Delayed fertilization
Mate in fall
Fertilize egg in spring
OR...Delayed implantation
Mate and fertilize egg in fall
Fertilized egg is implanted when feeding conditions are favorable
OR...Delayed fetus development
Mother provides nutrients thru advanced gas exchange
Growth occurs when conditions are favorable
**Depends on dietary needs
Give birth to one "pup"
Mother nurses until wings are developed
Microbats = 6-8 weeks
Megabats = 4-6months Habitat Caves
Six Species need trees
Some move from caves to under bark of trees
Feed at the fringe of a forest
Can live in fairly small forests Cave Ecosytems Extremely fragile systems
Isolated from each other
Require transport of nutrients from detritus that washes in or transient
species
Bat guano is needed for the survival of many of the Troglobites Three categories of cave dwelling animals
Troglobites - limited to cave
Troglophiles - can live all the time in a cave, but does not have to
Trogloxenes - use caves for part of its life cycle (Bats) Endagered species that call caves home Cave fish - Red List Olm Texas Blind Salamander Threats Barotrauma or wind turbines
Lungs of bats are like humans not birds
Sensitive to sudden barometric change
Bats found at wind farms
No trauma and few birds
est. 33,000 to 100,000 per year Habitat loss - loss of shag barked trees
Disturbance while in hibernation - loss of body fat
Climate change - Migration patterns
Contamination of insects and water from pesticides AND... White Nose Syndrome First found in New York - 2006
Now in at least nine states
Cool wet climate of cave - grows like fungus in fridge
Wakes bat in winter
Bat lowers immune system when lowering temp Ecological disaster
Estimated loss is up to 90%
Loss of pest control
Destruction of cave ecosystems
Loss of endangered bat species Best hope is to take measures to slow spread and learn more Benefits Only night pest eating animal
Pollinates tropical plants
Seed dispersal
Technologies
Sonar
Ultrasound
"Batcane" for the blind
New flight technologies But the number one benefit is.... Agricultural Pest Control 80% of agricultural pests

$3.7 billion a year

Loss of 1 million bats last year accounted for 660 - 1320 metric tons of
insects
Study in northeastern US only

Significant economic impact within 5 years Hypothesis:
1. Hair on cell reacts to turbulent air alerting bat that the wing shape is inefficient and cause a stall
2. Helps collect insects at "sweet spots"

Study:
Removed some to all hairs on bat wing
Bat would fall when executing turns
Regained agility when hair grew back
Lost balance in flight when removed from leading edge
Threw flour covered meal worms
Hit almost exclusively at the stretched sweet spot By Frank Rapp Conservation Cave closures during winter months
Gates at entrances of caves
Stakeholder support
Bat Gardens
Share bat knowledge
Join bat organizations
Bat houses Be Bat Friendly Myths and Legends Egyptians - prevent and cure poor eyesight, toothaches and baldness
Hung over doorway to prevent entry of demons

Chinese - Symbol of happiness and good fortune
Jade buttons in shape of bats on newborns

Europe literally goes to hell
Shakespeare and R.L. Stevenson associate bats with graveyards, death, ghosts & goblins
Dracula - Bram Stoker 1897

Mexico/Central America - symbol of death, sacrificial rites and messenger of the underworld

Native American - trickster or spy - thought dangerous and poisonous

"My disguise must be able to strike terror in their hearts. I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible..." Bruce Wayne, DC Comics Conclusion Questions? References Calhoun, Melissa. Bats Use Touch Receptors on Wings to Fly, Catch Prey. 15 December 2005. Accessed 15 Nov 2012 http://news.research.ohiou.edu/news/index.php?item=257.

Jones, G., and M. W. Holderied. "Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution". 2007 Accessed 15 Nov 2012
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1919403

Jones, K. E., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, and J. L. Gittleman. "Bats, Clocks, and Rocks: diversification patterns in chiroptera". 2005 Accessed 15 Nov 2012

Kunz, Thomas, Boston University. Bats Worth Billions to Agriculture: Pest-control Services at Risk. 3/31/2011. Accessed 15 Nov 2012.
http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=2743

Kunz, Thomas H. Boston University. Bat Facts and Folklore. 1984. The American Biology Teacher. Accessed 16 Nov 2012
http://www.bu.edu/cecb/bats/bat-facts-and-folklore/

Teeling, E. C. (). Hear, hear: the convergent evolution of echolocation in bats? 2009. Accessed 15 Nov 2012.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Fish and Wildlife Service Awards $800,000 in Grants to Explore Cause, Control of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats. 2009. Accessed 15 Nov 2012 http://www.fws.gov/news/NewsReleases/showNews.cfm?newsId=9191BAAD-F8E8-0097-B3670BDF3849EBF2.

United States Geological Survey. Culprit Identified: Fungus Causes Deadly Bat Disease 2011. Accessed 15 Nov 2012 http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3015#.T86qbVJ42uK.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service. White-nose syndrome in bats – Frequently Asked Questions. 2009. Accessed 15 Nov 2012. http://www.fws.gov/northeast/pdf/white-nosefaqs.pdf.

Wiseman, Georgianna Indiana Bat. 2012 Prezi.com. Accessed 12 Nov 2012 http://prezi.com/u95u4wjvs9nd/indiana-bat

Zook, John. Bats Use Touch Receptors on Wings to Fly, Catch Prey. December 15, 2005 Accessed 15 Nov 2012 http://phys.org/news9107.html

Video Courtesy of YouTube

Pictures courtesy of Google images
Full transcript