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Science Culminating

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Melanie Coomber

on 18 January 2014

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Transcript of Science Culminating

Science Culminating
"The Mission"
BY Melanie Coomber
Body Systems
The affect on astronauts

The circulatory systems primary function is to bring nutrients and oxygen to different parts of the body.
The circulatory system is directly effected by zero gravity because your blood is used to fighting against gravity. This results in a lot of blood rushing to the head. Causing the head to swell.
When they return to earth they are at risk for fainting and dizzy spells because the circulatory system is now used to no gravity, the blood will not travel to the brain as usual.This is a serious problem because it can result in injuries to the astronauts.

The skeletal system is the bodies support without the skeletal system we could not stand up.
When in space with zero gravity the lower portion of the skeletal system that is used to bearing weight doesn't. This results in bone breakdown and the release of calcium. This makes the bones more brittle and prone to fractures and an increase of risk for kidney stones. As well the inter vertebral discs on the spine are at risk of swelling which can mangle the spine.
Chemistry
Liquid Hydrogen vs. Sodium Nitrate

Hydrogen has the lowest molecular weight of known substances.
The intensity of which liquid hydrogen burns is extreme at 5,500 degrees Fahrenheit.

Pros
Cons
Liquid hydrogen is extremely flammable this makes it dangerous under certain circumstances.
There is also the challange of having to store liquid hydrogen which has to be at negative 423 degrees Fahrenheit.
Liquid Hydrogen
Sodium Nitrate
Water vapour warms temperatures up rapidly this causes a problem because this results in ice melting. When there is less light there is less reflection of the UV rays from the sun. Thus, more rays are being absorbed, resulting in warmer waters and temperatures across the globe.

The muscular system allows you to move. Without the muscle system we could not perform the simplest tasks When in space with zero gravity astronauts muscle fiber starts to decrease. In a 14 day mission an astronaut can lose up to 1/3 of their muscle fibers which make it difficult to perform the tasks at hand with weaker muscles.
Equation for Liquid Hydrogen
Equation for Sodium Nitrate
Based on the listed information I would personally use Liquid Hydrogen. The reason why I would use Liquid Hydrogen is because it appears to be safer to use. Sodium Nitrate appears to be toxic to people and an oxidizer. Liquid Hydrogen is combustible but that is easier controlled As well because it is very light you can have more on board the ship. This is a very good thing. That is why I would Use Liquid Hydrogen.
Liquid Hydrogen
Climate Change
The effects of burning the fuel
Green house gases is a gas that contributes to the green house effect. This is done by the gas absorbing heat and trapping it in our atmosphere.

The reason why Nitrogen Oxide is a green house gas is first for its ability to capture heat. Another probelm is that it can have a life span f approximately 170 years.
Nitrogen Oxide can combine with the different chemicals and become very harmful.


Three effects of global warming due to green house gases are the average global temperature is rising, polar ice is melting and it is also starting to get people ill with sever respiratory system problems.
Optics
Lenses and Telescopes
Between the two lenses the lens you should use to focus radiation would be the bioconvex lens because it directly focuses everything to one central place.
The telescope works by the images of stars or planets reflecting of a primary concave mirror then reflecting onto a secondary convex mirror which is where you will see the image from.
The advantage to multiple lens is that you gain a better focus.
Upon returning home astronauts go through multiple tests to ensure their health.
Some of the precautions they take are:

While in space they exercise so that muscle fiber doesn't decrease as much
They will check there blood flow
Have to wear a G suit to make sure blood gets to the head
They check your eyes
They check your balance as well
Along with these things there are restrictions astronauts go through. For example they can not drive until at least 21 days after landing.
Two main natural sources of water vapour is sublimation of ice and evaporation of water.
One natural source of nitrogen oxides is produce form a lightening bolt the heat makes the oxygen and nitrogen in the air react. Another smaller scale is microbial process in soil.

Nitrogen oxide is naturally removed by cloud droplets, vegetation and soil.
Nitrogen oxide when in soil will just unbalance the nitrogen cycle.
Bioconvex
Bioconcave
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