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Angela Willis

on 16 February 2015

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Background on the Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the start of better methods of manufacturing from a period of 1750 to 1900.

A movement from
Agricultural to Industrial society
Manual labor to use of machines

Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the real transition between hand on work and machines developing. The Industrial Revolution included the ideas of water and steam power. Also iron production went up along with new chemical manufacturing. Also the Industrial Revolution introduced the use of coal instead of wood.
Background on the Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a big turning point in history because of the way that is changed every day life and the development of the economies as the average income went up substantially.
The Beginnings of Industrialization
Started in Britain in 1750's

Factors of Production
Broad Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution caused a need for natural resources that caused the Age of Exploration and later Imperialism
The Industrial Revolution and "Great Expectations"
Why England?
Agriculture Revolution
How the Industrial Revolution affected Dickens
Dickens grew up in a factory common of the industrial revolution and during a time of great social shift
Textual Evidence of the Industrial Revolution
Other Characters and the Industrial Revolution
"Great Expectations" frequently mentions direct effects of the Industrial Revolution.

Also, the book is heavily based off of the social context created by the Industrial Revolution
Pip's relationship to the Industrial Revolution
Spread to Western Europe and America the following decades
Not fully felt until 1820's or 1830's
"...and never saw any likeness of them either (for their days were long before the days of photographs)" p. 3 -- Photographs were created during the Industrial Revolution
"I derived from this, that Joe's education, like Steam, was yet in its infancy." p. 46 --Pip references steam power, one of the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution
"He replied, 'A capitalist- an Insurer of Ships.'" p. 183-- During the Industrial Revolution, capitalism became more popular and many became businessmen, like Herbert
1. Political Stability
2. Labor
3. Natural resources
Later in the book, Pip desires to become a capitalist an idea that did not really exist until the Industrial revolution
4. Banking System
Technological advances in the Textile Industry
5. Growing demand/expanding market
Steam Power
In the beginning of the book, Pip is is called a commoner by Estella and wants to become a gentleman. A rise in class was almost impossible until the Industrial Revolution.
Patterns of Change:
Factory workers

Improved agricultural science
Larger scale farming operations
Four-course Crop Rotation
Selective Breeding
Enclosure Movement - Fences
Urbanization- the process of turning a rural area or village into a town or city.
Long Hours: 10-14 hrs a day, 6 days a week
Patterns of Change: Poor City Dwellers
Introduction of railways: Britain and Colonies
Faster transportation of raw materials and finished products
More trade
The Environment
The greatest accomplishment of the Industrial Revolution.
Applied to most industries
Reduce cost of products
Factories could be built anywhere
US Industry
Pre-industrial: 80% of people in rural areas
By 1850, for first time every, more people in a country (Gr. Britain) lived in cities than countryside

Inventions: Flying shuttle and roller spinner
Jaggers is part of the middle class, created in part by the industrial revolution.
In the end of the book, we find out that Magwitch was sent to the New World (Australia, a British prison colony), which was discovered during the age of exploration which the Industrial Revolution caused.
Dickens frequently comments on the effects of the Industrial Revolution in his books.
Low wages
Dangerous working conditions
Spread of Industrial Revolution:
New Society
Rising Middle Class
Men work and women stay home- new stereotypes emerge
Improved the quantity, quality, and profitability of food
Factory System
City Growth
Expand educational and training opportunities
British Miracle Spreads
USA- Samuel Slater brought new manufacturing technologies from Britain to the USA and founded the first U.S. cotton mill.
American Civil War started the great expansion of US industry
Patterns of Change: Lower middle class
Global Effects of the Industrial Revolution
What caused the Industrial Revolution & why did it begin in England?

Abundant Natural Resources: Coal and Iron Production
Assembly Lines

Mass Production
Essential Question: What caused an Industrial Revolution in England in the 18th century?

1. Beginning in the late 1700s, a period in which mechanical power replaced muscle power for the production of goods.

2. A movement from:
An agricultural to an industrial society
Manual labor to use of machines
Rural society to an urban society
Improved the quantity, quality, and profitability of food
Increase lifespan and infant mortality rates
Small farmers forced off farms to towns and cities to find work
Wealthy individuals or groups of business men who invest in new technologies and inventions.
- An entrepreneur is a person who organizes, manages and takes risks of business
- They paid young inventors and encouraged them to invent new things.
Depended on factory work for livelihood
Lost Jobs as competition for factory jobs grew
Men, women and children worked
Patterns of Change: Children
Child Labor-started working as early as 6 yrs old
Paid 10% of male wages
Few breaks
Dangerous work
Patterns of Change: Wealthy Merchants

Economic and political power was based on land ownership which was highly restricted to only a few.

This group was not supportive of the Industrial Middle Class.
Social class of skilled workers, professional (i.e. lawyers), and management.
Better food and housing, which led to fewer diseases and longer life expectancy.
Men work, women stay home- Gender role stereotypes emerge
Boys went to school and girls prepared for marriage
Hired domestic workers
Age of Reform
Adam Smith - classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics.

Thomas Malthus- Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies, most people will be poor and miserable

David Ricardo- laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market

John Stuart Mill - freedom and liberty comes from individualism.

Charles Fourier and Henri de Saint-Simon -criticized capitalism. Society ran by intellectuals providing for the welfare of the lowest classes and emancipation of women.
Socialism - means of production owned by the public and operated for the welfare of all
Laissez-faire- idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Capitalism- An economic system based on private ownership
Communism- All means of production are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally
What were the
important changes in human life caused by the the Industrial
Water and coal to fuel new machines
Rivers to transport things
Iron to build machinery and tools
Harbors to encourage trade
Living Conditions
6-9 people in a 1-room apartment
Diseases spread rapidly
Lack of medical care
Died of common diseases
No regular garbage pick-up (garbage filled the streets)
High crime rate
Air pollution
Water pollution
Ecosystem destruction
Depletion of natural resources

No child workers under nine years of age
Children of 9-13 years to work no more than nine hours a day
Children of 13-18 years to work no more than 12 hours a day
Two hours schooling each day for children
1833 Factory Act
1844 Ragged School Union
free education for destitute children
1868: Public School Act
Industrialization Spreads: Europe
French Revolution and Napoleonic wars (1789-1815) slowed the process of industrialization in Europe.
Interrupted trade and communication, and caused inflation
Corporations- business owned by stockholders who share profit but aren't responsible for debts
The Elementary Education Act 1870 - primary education
William Edward Forster
The Elementary Education Act 1880 - extends the compulsory school attendance age to 10 years old
Education Act 1902 - secondary education
New Technologies:
Railroad Boom
Political Stability
Constitutional Monarch

6. Transportation
Laws to protect businesses
Patent laws encourage investment
No internal tariffs
Property rights of individuals
Interchangeable parts- parts that can be swapped for one another in the assembling of a product
Monopoly- complete control by one firm of the production and/or supply of a good
Widening the gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries.

Unequal distribution of wealth
Economic Philosophers
Social Reformers
Social Reform
Karl Marx - With the help of Friedrich Engels, wrote
The Communist Manifesto
(1848). This work forms the basis of all communist theory.

William Wilberforce - leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament. Helped end the slave trade in 1807.
Unions - workers joined together in voluntary groups to press for reform
collective bargaining - negotiation between workers and their employers
strike - stop work in order to press demands
Benefits of the Industrial Revolution
Created Jobs
Encouraged technological inventions and progress
Healthier Diets
Cheaper Goods
Formation of the middle class
Better transport, communications and mechanized goods made life comfortable
Compulsory education
Patterns of Change: Large landowners/aristocrats
Middle Class- a growing wealthy class of industrialists, factory owners, and shippers
cotton gin
Expansion throughout Europe

Immigration of (British) skilled workers to Europe and America
Building of factories
Factory System- method of production in which a finished product is made by workers and machines in one location outside their homes
Epic Rap Battle
Belgium was the second country to industrialize
Industrilization reached contiental Europe
Spread by region
Many European countries did not industrialize
Global Inequality
3. Started in Britain in 1750's
Spread to Western Europe and America the following decades
Warm-Up: During the Industrial Revolution, How did workers respond to unsafe working conditions
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