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U.S. History Unit I - Pre-Columbus through Slavery in the Colonies
Transcript of U.S. History Unit I - Pre-Columbus through Slavery in the Colonies
Pre-Columbus through Slavery in the Colonies
Renaissance (14th - 16th Century)
~advances in science, economics, politics, and art
~scientific advances + increased wealth = Age of Exploration
"I'm rich and powerful! I demand silk, gems, gold, ivory, and spice from Asia and Africa. Let's establish some trade routes."
The Power of West Africa
Portuguese 1st to purchase ENSLAVED Africans
Portuguese mariners reach kingdoms below Sahara
Seek gold, salt, ag, iron tools, animals
Did NOT discover America
First European to take land and enslave natives.
Landed in West Indies
called people "Indians"
Conquered Caribbean, Central, and South America
Began conquering Florida, Southeast, and Mississippi River
Why did Europeans seek a sea route to Asia?
What effects did the Portuguese mariners have in West Africa?
How did European explorations affect life in the Americas, Africa, and Europe?
"By what right or warrant can we enter into the land of these Savages, take away their rightful inheritance from them, and plant ourselves in their places, being unwronged or unprovoked by them?"
~Robert Gray, 1609
Where were they from?
Why Come to the
~Traded Natives fur for metal tools
~Established forts to encourage settlement
~Brought nuns and priests to convert Natives
French (Part 2)
~River routes North for trade
Tobacco saves Jamestown
becomes the crop of Virginia settlers
Population increase creates need for government
House of Burgesses
Governed the colony
Royal Governor appointed by King of England
English seek Religious Freedom!
Tensions arise between Protestants and Catholics.
Anger that King (Church of England) supports Catholics
Protestants wish to separate from C of E
Tobacco = $$$
Religions of the New World
(established 1620 - 1700)
Massachusetts Bay Company Puritans
Want to break from C of E
Want religious freedom
Escape religious "purges"
Strict belief in absolute authority of males and female inferiority.
Voyage funded by Mass. Bay Co.
Many businessmen on voyage
Came to build Puritan colony
Elected own leaders
Did NOT want to break from C of E
More serious and pious
Believed hard work + thrift = useful life
Material possessions or success = God's favor
Believed in "predestination" and "original sin"
Everyone can achieve salvation
Everyone is equal
Friends of Native Americans
Effects of Colonial Settlement on Native Americans
2. Inter-tribal Conflicts: fighting between tribes over trade rights.
Leading Causes of Conflict between
Native Americans and Europeans
1. Conflicts over land ownership
2. Small clashes between Natives and Europeans
3. Neither side backs down.
Jamestown is #1
Colony is settled in 1607
unprepared for survival
Starvation, disease, and conflict nearly wipe out colony
Exchange of goods AND ideas between
Introduction of Slavery in the Colonies (1619-1775)
What might Native Americans think about these gender roles, and why?
(Yes, the Quaker Oats guy...)
Number of slaves sold in U.S. in 1619
Jamestown was pt. of origin
Treated as indentured servants
~could earn freedom after 7-9 years
Practice changed in 1639
Colonial North American Slave Trade Company
First launched from Massachussetts
East India Trade Company takes over trade.
Barbados Slave Code (1639)
Provide legal guidelines for slavery in Carribean
"Be it therefore enacted and declared by this Grand Assembly that all negro, mulato, mestizo, or indian slaves within the dominion of the West Indies are Legal Property.
Terminology of "Othering"
Racially mixed ancestry of Caucasian and African descent
Racially mixed ancestry of:
American Indians and Europeans, or
Latin American and European
Adopted in the North American colonies in 1661
What owners HAD to do FOR slaves:
(according to the Code)
Provide slaves with dwelling
Provide slaves with clothes
What slave owners COULD legally do TO slaves:
(according to the Code)
Punishment of any type
Slave code specified the following was okay:
Slavery gradually became legal in all colonies
Ideas of inferiority based on race now engrained in cultural identity.
What did these humans lose when they became slaves in North America?
Right to testify in court
Ability to make money
Right to hold property
Ability to participate in political process
Ability to gather in public
Right to travel w/o permission
Right to an education
Right to practice religion
So wait...who "discovered" America?
Leif Ericksson was the first European to set foot in "America"
So why are we in the "Americas"?