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U.S. History Unit I - Pre-Columbus through Slavery in the Colonies

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Michele Goostree

on 29 August 2016

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Transcript of U.S. History Unit I - Pre-Columbus through Slavery in the Colonies

Unit 1:
Pre-Columbus through Slavery in the Colonies

First Encounters
The Europeans are Coming!
Renaissance (14th - 16th Century)
~advances in science, economics, politics, and art

~scientific advances + increased wealth = Age of Exploration
"I'm rich and powerful! I demand silk, gems, gold, ivory, and spice from Asia and Africa. Let's establish some trade routes."
The Power of West Africa
Portuguese 1st to purchase ENSLAVED Africans
Portuguese mariners reach kingdoms below Sahara
Seek gold, salt, ag, iron tools, animals
Christopher
Columbus
Did NOT discover America
First European to take land and enslave natives.
The Conquistadores
Landed in West Indies
&
called people "Indians"
Spanish
Invaders
brave
resourceful
ruthless
destructive
Conquered Caribbean, Central, and South America
Began conquering Florida, Southeast, and Mississippi River
Knowledge Check...
Why did Europeans seek a sea route to Asia?
What effects did the Portuguese mariners have in West Africa?
How did European explorations affect life in the Americas, Africa, and Europe?
"New" Americans
1607-1800
"By what right or warrant can we enter into the land of these Savages, take away their rightful inheritance from them, and plant ourselves in their places, being unwronged or unprovoked by them?"

~Robert Gray, 1609
Where were they from?
Why Come to the
New World?
French:
~Fishing
~Fur Trade
~Traded Natives fur for metal tools
Spanish:
~Gold Claims
~Established forts to encourage settlement
~Brought nuns and priests to convert Natives
French (Part 2)
~River routes North for trade
English: GOLD
English:
Religious Freedom
(arrive 1620)
Tobacco saves Jamestown
AND
becomes the crop of Virginia settlers
Population increase creates need for government
House of Burgesses
Governed the colony
Royal Governor appointed by King of England
English seek Religious Freedom!
Tensions arise between Protestants and Catholics.
Anger that King (Church of England) supports Catholics
Protestants wish to separate from C of E
Tobacco = $$$
Religions of the New World
(established 1620 - 1700)
Pilgrims
Massachusetts Bay Company Puritans
Quakers
William
Bradford
Want to break from C of E
Want religious freedom
Escape religious "purges"
Strict belief in absolute authority of males and female inferiority.
Voyage funded by Mass. Bay Co.
Many businessmen on voyage
John
Winthrop
Came to build Puritan colony
Elected own leaders
Did NOT want to break from C of E
More serious and pious
Believed hard work + thrift = useful life
Material possessions or success = God's favor
William
Penn
Believed in "predestination" and "original sin"
Everyone can achieve salvation
Everyone is equal
Pacifists
Friends of Native Americans
Effects of Colonial Settlement on Native Americans
1. Disease
2. Inter-tribal Conflicts: fighting between tribes over trade rights.
Leading Causes of Conflict between
Native Americans and Europeans
1. Conflicts over land ownership
2. Small clashes between Natives and Europeans
3. Neither side backs down.
"Wee!
I'm sailing!"
-Christopher
Columbus
Jamestown is #1
Colony is settled in 1607
Completely
unprepared for survival
Starvation, disease, and conflict nearly wipe out colony
(1607)
Columbian Exchange:
Exchange of goods AND ideas between
Europe
the Americas
Asia
West Africa
Introduction of Slavery in the Colonies (1619-1775)
("successful")
Knowledge Check
What might Native Americans think about these gender roles, and why?
(Yes, the Quaker Oats guy...)
20
Number of slaves sold in U.S. in 1619
Jamestown was pt. of origin
Treated as indentured servants
~could earn freedom after 7-9 years
Practice changed in 1639
Colonial North American Slave Trade Company
(established 1639)
First launched from Massachussetts
East India Trade Company takes over trade.
What's this?
Barbados Slave Code (1639)
Provide legal guidelines for slavery in Carribean
"Be it therefore enacted and declared by this Grand Assembly that all negro, mulato, mestizo, or indian slaves within the dominion of the West Indies are Legal Property.
Terminology of "Othering"
Negro:
Mullato:
Mestizo:
People
imported
from Africa
Racially mixed ancestry of Caucasian and African descent
Racially mixed ancestry of:
American Indians and Europeans, or
Latin American and European
Adopted in the North American colonies in 1661
Additional Expectations
What owners HAD to do FOR slaves:
(according to the Code)
Provide slaves with dwelling
Provide slaves with clothes
What slave owners COULD legally do TO slaves:
(according to the Code)
Punishment of any type
Slave code specified the following was okay:
mutalation
burning alive
1639-1700
Slavery gradually became legal in all colonies
Ideas of inferiority based on race now engrained in cultural identity.
What did these humans lose when they became slaves in North America?
Right to testify in court
Ability to make money
Right to hold property
Ability to participate in political process
Ability to gather in public
Right to travel w/o permission
Right to an education
Right to practice religion
Full transcript