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The Periodic Table of Elements Unit 1
Transcript of The Periodic Table of Elements Unit 1
are the vertical columns in the periodic table. There are 18 groups
Group 1 contains the elements Lithium, sodium and potassium. They are known as the alkali metals
The smaller of the two numbers inside each box is the element's atomic number.
The atomic number is the number of protons inside the nucleus of an atom
The large number inside the box is the Mass Number. It is the sum of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus of an atom. We are only looking at patterns now. We will learn about the mass number later when we study atomic structure
For Experts: The larger of the two numbers inside each box in this periodic table has a decimal point. Most elements have more than one type of atom.
Different atoms of the same element are called isotopes.
The Alkali Metals
The Inert Gases
Lithium is a very reactive metal that is stored under oil. It can be cut like cheese. Lithium has a shiny appearance when freshly cut but tarnishes quickly.
Sodium is a very reactive metal that is stored under oil to protect it from air and water. It can be cut like cheese. Sodium has a shiny appearance when freshly cut but tarnishes quickly.
Potassium is an extremely reactive metal that is stored under oil to protect it from air and water. It can be cut like cheese. Potassium has a shiny appearance when freshly cut but tarnishes quickly.
are horizontal rows in the Periodic Table. The Atomic Number of each element increases by one as you move from left to right. There is one more proton in the nucleus of the element from left to right
Boron atomic number 5 has 5 protons in its nucleus
Carbon atomic number 6 has six protons in its nucleus
Fluorine: A pale yellow gas. One of the most reactive elements in the universe.
Chlorine: A pale green gas, very reactive.
Bromine: reddish brown gas when warm, brown liquid, reactive
Iodine: Black solid that forms a purple vapour on warming
Chlorine gas reacting with sodium metal
The group 18 inert gases glow different colours when they are exposed to large electrical potentials.
Group 18 elements are very unreactive.
The Periodic Table and Patterns
By the end of this unit should know
what the atomic number of an element is.
how elements are arranged on the periodic table.
what Periods and Groups are.
the physical and chemical properties of the group 1 metals
the physical properties of group 17 elements.
that sodium and chlorine react violently together.
that elements in the same group have similar properties
Elements to the right of the red line are non metals. The vast majority of elements are metals. (shiny,malleable, ductile, electrical conductors, heat conductors)
There are about 20 non metals (low melting point, brittle, poor heat and electrical conductors)
Patterns you can see in the Periodic Table
Elements in the same group have similar physical and chemical properties
The Group 1 elements Lithium, Sodium and Potassium are grey shiny reactive metals
The Group 17 elements are coloured reactive gasses (when warmed in the cases of bromine and iodine).
The group 18 elements are unreactive gasses that glow different colours when subjected to high voltages
Before we can understand why these patterns exist we need to know a little more about atoms themselves. This will be covered in the next unit.
...does sodium react with chlorine?