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Day No. 9: Baroque Instrumental & Vocal Music

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Whitney George

on 3 August 2013

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Transcript of Day No. 9: Baroque Instrumental & Vocal Music

Baroque Instrumental
Music

Telemann
Music with words is historically more important than music without words (instrumental music)
The Baroque era was the first time in history where instrumental music was just as important as vocal music
Coincided with the rise of craftmanship (Stradivarius Violins)
Instrumental music provoked a new question for the audience: "When the music starts, how long should the compose keep it going and what should the listener expect?"
With vocal music, the answer is- when the lyrics complete a thought or sentence, but with instrumental music, the answer was much less clear
The Concerto & Concerto Grosso
Concerto- consist of contrasts between the full orchestra and soloist
Concerto Grosso- conists of contrasts between the orchestra and a small group of soloists
Movements
One way to extend a composition is to split it up into smaller, more digestable chunks called movements
Movements are self-contained section of music within a larger work
Different movements will have contrasts of tempo, dynamics, meter, key, mood, etc...
The Baroque Concerto is typically three movements
Movement No. 1: Fast
Movement No. 2: Slow
Movement No. 3: Fast
Ritornello Form
Is typically the form of the first movement of the concerto
The orchestra texture is blocky and solid, where as the soloist texture is rapid and brilliant
Ritornello- to return
the typical form starts in the tonic key and moves to other keys before moving back to the tonic at the end
Vivaldi, Concerto in G, Op. 4, No. 12 "La stravaganza"
Movement No. 1: Ritornello Form
RITORNELLO
A- central section with sequences
B- a cadential sequence with loud and soft contrasts
C- transition to the solo section
SOLO 1
RITORNELLO 2- C
SOLO 2
RITORNELLO 3- B & C
SOLO 3
RITORNELLO 4- B & C
SOLO 4
RITORNELLO 5- B & C
Movement No. 2: Largo
Ground bass is the more important voice to listen to---the true melody
Consists of variations on the melody
THEME
VARIATION 1
VARIATION 2
VARIATION 3
VARIATION 4
VARIATION 5
VARIATION 6
THEME
Movement No. 3: Allegro
Like the first movement- ritornello form
ends with the theme from the 1st movement in minor
Variation form- uninterrupted repetition of one clear melodic unit without ever losing touch of the original theme
Basso continuo- a common type of variation form in the baroque period where the bass voice has the theme
There are a few types of Basso continuos/Ground Bass patterns:
chaconne
passacaglia
Ostinato- a repeating fragment of music
Ground Bass Form
Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5: Flute, Violin, Harpsichord & Orchestra
Movement No. 1: Allegro
RITORNELLO
SOLO
RITORNELLO- first phrase
SOLO
RITORNELLO- middle phrase
SOLO
RITORNELLO- middle phrase
SOLO
RITORNELLO-middle phrase
SOLO- central
RITORNELLO- first & second phrase
SOLO
RITORNELLO- middle phrase
SOLO
HARPSICHORD CADENZA
section 1
section 2
section 3
RITORNELLO
provides contrast to the first movement- slow and emotional
much softer than the earlier movement---reduction of volume is because of the cut in instrumental forces
mainly features the three solists
Movement No. 2: Affettuso
Movement No. 3: Allegro
fugual form
compound meter
Fugue
Fugue- a polyphonic piece written for multiple voices based on a principal theme
the theme is called the SUBJECT in a fugue
Fuga- latin for "running away"
Exposition
exposition- where all of the voices present the theme
Episodes & Entries
after the exposition, entrances of the theme are interupted by episodes of "other" material
the keys are greatly varied here
when the subject enters again in the tonic key, the fugue is over
Methods of writing counterpoint for Fugues
countersubject- "new material" over entrances of the subject
stretto- when entries of the theme overlap one another
augmentation- making the subject take more time by augmenting the rhythm
diminution- making the subject take less time by making the rhythm shorter
intersion- all intervals are reversed- steps up are reversed to steps down
Bach, Art of Fugue Contrapunctus 4
S
A
T
B
Exposition
Episode
Subject Entries
S
A
T
B
Long Episode
Subject Entries
B
T
A
S
Long Episode
Subject Entries
T
A
Episode
Final Subject Entries
T
A
Dance Suite
Dance music was popular in the Baroque era
Suites- groups of dances
all dances in a suite are the same key
the last dance tends to be a fast gigue in a compound meter
Baroque Dances
dances were distinguished by meter, tempo, and rhythm
Allemande- 4/4 meter, moderate tempo
Minuet- 3/4 meter, moderate tempo
Gavotte- 4/4 meter, moderate tempo
Gigue- 6/8 meter, fast
Baroque Dance Form
two sections- A & B
AABB- Binary Form
OR Trio Forms
ABA
Minuet, Trio, Minuet
French Overture
a dance suite that starts with a special number is called an overture
French overture consists of two sharply contrasted sections
A- slower
B- faster
ABA' form (where A' is a variation of A)
B section tends to be polyphonic in texture, sometimes even a fugue form
Bach, Orchestral Suite in D
Ouverture
ABA
A features dotted rhythms
B part is contrapuntal- fugue form
Air
air= "aria" or song for instrumental ensemble
accompanied by a walking bass-- which is a downward progression
Gavotte
wind instruments and timpani are reintroduced
4/4, moderate tempo
Gigue
6/8 time- compound meter
fast dance
Baroque Vocal
Music

vocal music had three main outlets
church music
opera
the court
words were strongly tied to music- word painting helped bring out the meaning of words, and certain keys were believed to evoke specific emotional responses in listeners

Opera
introduced in 1600
opera was a stage for individual singers to sing about emotions and feelings with drama as the background
colouratura singing- the highest and most impressive soprano- light and agile
Italian Opera Seria
opera seria- serious opera
plots are often greek
text of an opera is called a LIBRETTO and the person who writes it is called a LIBRETIST
Recitative
Recitative- to recite- declaiming words in a theatrical manner
free rhythm, mimicking speech
used for plot
light accompaniment
secco recitative- dry, light accompaniment
accompanied recitative- when the full orchestra accompanies the singer
Aria
aria- for a solo singer
vocal part is more melodic
about emotion- not plot driven
standard song form- ABA
when the A comes back at the end, it is usually ellaborated upon by the singer by ornamenting the original melody
Handel, Julius Caesar
aria- "la giustizia"
typical ABA form
word painting:
fast trills on the words 'vengeance' and 'traitor' for dynamic effect
B section provides contrast
Oratorio
instrumentation- church choir
tendency to borrow secular music for sacred settings
church grew to be more theatrical
oratorio- an opera on a religious subject
was NOT a part of the church service
Handel, Messiah
Recitative- "There Were Shepherds"
Part 1- secco
Part 2- accompanied
Part 3- secco
Chorus- "Glory to God"
Hallelujah Chorus
Church Cantata
Cantata- a general name for a piece of moderate length for voices and instruments
written to be performed during Lutheran services
Lutheran Chorale
Lutheran hymns are called CHORALES
served as the basis for worship
GAPPED CHORALE- the chorale melody is delivered in spurts
Bach, Cantata No. 4 "Christ Lag in Todesbanden" (Christ Lay in Death's Dark Prison)
Stanza 1- S
Stanza 2- SA
Stanza 3- T
Stanza 4- sAtb
Stanza 5- B
Stanza 6- ST
Stanza 7- Satb
The Organ Chorale
Organ technology developed rapidly during the Baroque Era
chorale prelude- an important genre of keyboard music which incoorporated a hymn
(See Bach Cantata No. 4)
Full transcript