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Transcript of IRA
through the 1921 Anglo-Irish
War The Easter Rising of 1916 The Anglo-Irish War
1919-1921 Sinn Fein and
the Dail Guerrilla campaign Anglo-Irish Truce The Aftermath Planning the Rising The Rising Participants in the Rising Tradition of (unsuccessful) Uprisings The Volunteers Irish Republican Brotherhood
(the Fenians) Origins of the IRA
Wolfe Tone's rebellion 1798
Robert Emmet's insurrection of 1803
Young Irelander's outbreak of 1848
Fenian uprising of 1867 Originally founded on St. Patrick's Day 1858 by James Stephens and Thomas Clarke Luby
American wing know as Clann na Gael
Described as 'Fenians' by organization leader in American based on Fianna of Irish legend ( a cross between knights of the Round Table and Japanese Samurai)
Membership based on Irish decent and oathbound to the organizations constitution
Penalties for breaking the oath included death, banishment or lesser punishments Established in 1913 in response to the creation
of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)- who favored unionism and wanted to prevent Home Rule in Ireland
The Volunteers would experience a large growth in population (180,000) as Irish nationalist were called to reinforce their goals of Home Rule.
When the war broke, John Redmond, as Irish politician in the Volunteers, pledged the support of Ireland to British war efforts, the Volunteers split Shortly past noon on Monday the 24th of April, the Proclamation of an Irish Republic was read outside the newly occupied General Post Office (GPO) Martial law was declared in Dublin on April 26th, and would soon be extended to the entire country After the Easter Rising, The Irish public turned to the Sinn Fein for political change. (Even through in prison at the time, Arthur Griffith won the election for the Sinn Fein party The same day the Dail meet, military action began through the use of guerrilla campaigns Although neither side observed the typical 'rules of war' on July 9th 1921 a truce was agreed upon. Wolfe Tone's rebellion would link Republicanism to the Irish revolutionary tradition, becoming known as the founder of Irish Republicanism.Tone maintained that Ireland and Britian's connection could only be broken through physical force. This idea would become the foundation of Irish Republicanism. IRB Continued... The IRB was a small revolutionary which supported to use of violence for the establishment of an Irish Republic
Celebrated incidents, such as the execution of the 'Manchester Martyrs' (hanged for shooting a constable while trying to rescue a prisoner) gave 'heroes' to the movement
Use of a 'dynamite campaign' a series of bombing of throughout England for roughly two years starting in 1883 The National Volunteers The majority followed Redmond and enlisted in the British Army.
Belief that the British would have no other choice than Home Rule after the war had ended The Irish Volunteers The rest followed Eoin MacNeill, Chief of Staff, not participating in the war
Belief that the IV would only be used to fight if the UVF was used to interfere with Home Rule Irish Citizen Army Founded by Captain Jack White to defend workers during the great 1913 lockout
Smallest of the previous organizations
James Connolly urged the force to train "as they are doing in Ulster"
After becoming the ICA's leader in 1914, Connolly enforced structure, discipline and a commitment to revolution for an Irish Republic Although not originally included, Connolly's continual acts of rebellion landed him on the IRB Military Council with Joseph Plunkett, Patrick Pearse and Eamon Ceannt. IRB and it's Military council Irish Volunteers Leaders of the Rising included: Thomas J. Clark, Sean MacDiarmada, P.H Pearse, James Connolly, Thomas MacDonagh, Eamon Ceannt and Joseph Plunkett These 7 leaders signatures would officiate the proclamation of the Irish Republic The ICA The Military council favoring rebellion began planning an uprising The council would keep it's plan secret from MacNeill, who, although favoring military action, believed in waiting until there was a strong chance of success. Essentially keeping the main force for the uprising in the dark. Easter Sunday, April 23rd 1916 was chosen as the date of the rising The IV was only told to gather that day for a routine march Complications As made in prior negotiations with the Germans, the ship Aud, carrying rifles, machine guns, ammunition and explosives set sail to Ireland The Irish expected the ship to land on Easter Sunday, however, the Germans arrived at the Thursday before and was captured on Good Friday The British knew of the Irish intention to rise but thought it unlikely due to the circumstances Irish hope of a well-armed widespread rebellion were dashed The capturing of the Aud also informed MacNeill of the plan for rebellion As the leader of the IV, MacNeill issued an order of cancellation of all Volunteer movement Easter Sunday Although suffering complications and the loss of a widespread uprising, on Sunday night the Military council issued orders for 'inspection and routine march at 10 a.m' to the Dublin battalions Using the GPO as headquarters, the rebels also occupied Boland's Mills, Jacob's biscuit factory, South Dublin Union and the College of Surgeons A tactical mistake on the part of the Irish was the failure to take the Dublin Castle, the centre of the British administration. Although believed to be well guarded, most of the troops were on leave for the holiday Radical Irish
organizations prior to
the IRA The Rising-British Response Described as a blood sacrifice, it can be argued the leaders hoped to hold Dublin long enough for the country to mobilize The British established a strongly fortified base at Trinity College from which to launch their attacks Because of the lack of individuals and their 'sporadic' nature of positions, the British were able to interfere severely with rebel communications British troops were also mobilized more rapidly than expected On Wednesday, the city was bombarded with artillery and explosives, causing devastating fires On April 29th, the rebels surrendered unconditionally, the terms demanded by the British To the British, every Irish citizen was a possible Irish Rebel (roughly 1,600 participated in the Rising, but almost 3,500 were arrested after) Although many were released shortly after their arrest, the public sentiment of the British began to shift The treatment of the Rising leaders sealed the fate of the British. Trials were held secretly, with no defense- originally 90 sentenced to death, 15 executions would be carried out. The executions were held over 9 days, and regarded as particularly brutal. (In the case of Connolly, who had been wounded so badly during the Rising, the British had to tie him to a chair just to shoot him. The new MP's refused Westminster, instead creating a separate parliament, the Dail. Although open to all, the Unionist and Irish Parliamentary Party refused, leaving only the Sinn Fein. The Dail confirmed the Proclaimation of an Irish Republic made during the Easter Risings, as well as established a Irish court system. The British government refused to acknowledge these reforms Flying columns- small groups of men who attacked British forces and then disappeared, merging into the general population Attacks on the RIC (Royal Irish Constable) in order to arm the IRA. Small groups of agents focusing on British intelligence figures (counter-intelligence) Due to the always present attacks, many RIC resigned or moved to escape, leading to the emergency recruitment of the 'Black and Tan's' (based on their make-shift uniforms The Black and Tan's (many ex-military) and the IRA would engage in some of the bloodiest attacks of the conflict Bloody Sunday November 21 14 British intelligence agents shot dead in their homes That afternoon, Black and Tan's open fired at a Gaelic football match On that same day two IRA men died while in custody at the Dublin Castle (allegedly trying to escape) King George V addressed the Northern Ireland Parliament, appealing for 'peace in the country' No mention of surrender was made during the truce, which would take affect on July 11th, 1921, ending the Anglo-Irish War The IRA The Anglo-Irish War was important in the estblishment of the IRA because during the war the Volunteers were brought under control of the Dail Accordingly, the Volunteers became the army of the Republic. Their official title Oglaugh na hEireann but known as the Irish Republican Army It could be argued that theortecially, the IRA was estbalished with the reading of the proclaimintion of the Irish Republic during the Easter Rising, but then given the title later during the Anglo-Irish War GOP