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Kingdom Plantae

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on 3 April 2014

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Transcript of Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Plantae
What is the sporophyte?
I thought it was just seed, plant, flower, seed...
What do you know about plants?
The Plant Life Cycle
Switching from haploid to diploid is called ______ of _______.

What other organisms do this?
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
Chloroplasts to make their own food by performing ____________
A waxy layer called a cuticle over their leaves, stem and fruit for protection
Cell walls made of cellulose to _________ and _________

Parts
Reproduction
Cells
Nutrition

Plants reproduce with spores and seeds
Gametophyte- the stage that produces egg and sperm (egg and sperm combine to form)
Sporophyte- the stage where spores are produced
Where plants began
Algae
Plant
Similarities?
***Plant Differences for Classifying***
First is whether or not the plants have a vascular system to transport water.





Plants that don't have one rely on diffusion
Plants and algae both
have the same kind of chlorophyll
similar cell walls
store starch
have a two part life cycle
Plant and Algae similarities
Non-vascular plants
These plants are usually found
___________ because _____.
Seeds
Like non-seed plants they have alternating stages from gametophyte to sporophyte.
Gametes combine and form _______
True stems, _____ and _______
Vascular Seed Plants (non-flowering)
Key Developments
Male gametophytes do not need ______ to travel to female gametophytes.
Pollen that can __________
Seeds are protective coverings that keeps the sporophyte safe
Seeds contain food for the sporophyte so that it can grow until it can produce enough sugar to survive
Gymnosperms
-Greek for naked seed
_____________-when pollen is transferred to the female gametophytes
_____________-when the pollen and egg combine to form a zygote
Angiosperms
Flowering plants
Make fruits to cover seeds
Fruits

The covering of seeds
Add protection to seeds
Attract animals ______________
Some are specially shaped for travel
Monocots
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Dicots
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Parts of a Seed Plant
Roots
Phloem
Sepal
Petal
Stamen
Pistil
Stigma
Ovary
Xylem
Root Hair
What are the three
jobs that roots perform
for a plant?
1.__________________
2._________________
__________________3.
Root types and root hairs
Taproots-one main root with smaller branch roots. Good for deep water drilling.
Fibrous Roots
Many of the same size roots that get water from the surface.
*
Xylem is the part of the vascular system that carries ______

Phloem is the part of the vascular system that carries sugar
What do stems do?
1.
2.
3.
Woody stems
-Dark rings are______
-Light rings are______

Herbaceous Stems
Unlike woody stems xylem and phloem __________

What was the difference between monocot and dicot stems?
What do stems do?


What is the phloem?


What is the xylem?


What do roots do?
Leaf
So far we have talked about
two of the four major parts
of a plant.

What were they?

What are their jobs?

What is next?
No matter size, shape or color the job
is the same.

Leaves are structures that ______
Leaf Structure
Stomate-an opening that allows CO2 in and O2 out
Guard Cell- opens and closes stoma
Xylem-____________
Phloem-_______________

Pollination
Parts of a Flower
Petals
These are specially colored to _____________________.
Stamen = Anther + Filament
Filament is the long thin stalk

Anther is a saclike structure that contains __________.
Pistil
Stigma ___________
Style_____________
Ovary____________
Review
Vascular vs Nonvascular
Where do
they live?

What parts do
they have/not have?

What type of plants
are in this grou?
What is a plant?
Characteristics of the cell

Characteristics of the entire organism

How is this kingdom different from animals, fungi,protists?
What is their life cycle like?

Non-seed


Seed
What are the four different categories of plants?

1.
2.
3.
4.

What is an example of each one?
1.
2.
3.
4.

What is a seed and why is it a step up from not having seeds?

What are the parts of a seed and what do they turn into?
What are the two major groups of seed plants?

How are they different from each other?


What are some examples of each?
Which type of
angiosperm
is it?
What are the functions of ...

A root
1.
2.
3.
A stem
1.
2.
3.
A leaf
1.
A flower
1.
2.
Plant Processes
Female parts:
___________
Male parts:
___________
Pollination______

Fertilization_____
Pollination and Fertilization
1. Pollen lands on the stigma
2. Sperm travels down the pollen tube
3. Egg and Sperm form a zygote (fertilized egg)

What happens to the flower after fertilization?
After Fertilization:
1. Fertilized egg develops into a seed
2. Flower parts wilt and fall away as fruit develops
3. The ripe fruit opens and seeds disperse
Seeds are more advanced than spores because theythey can remain _______ and are protected.


Can you make a plant without a seed?

How?
Seeds are produced by sexual reproduction (male and female parts)

Asexual reproduction: part of the plant breaks of and makes a new one.
This creates:
Seed->Germinate-> Plant
Plant Food
1.
2.
3.
Plants need these three to make sugar glucose
Water
Carbon Dioxide
Solar Energy
Captured by
_________.
Plants break down some of their glucose for energy using ___________.

So like us they will make some _____and_____ just like we do.
Glucose
Plants make much more
oxygen than _______
so breathe easy!
The process that plants perform to make glucose sugar is ________.


Where does this happen?
The pigment ________ reflects green light so we see it as green
The rest is ______________________.
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6 H2O + Sunlight -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Gas Exchange
Oxygen is waste from photosynthesis so it will go back out _________


Transpiration occurs when water leaves stomata that are opened.

-Ever leave a window open?
What do plants need in order to carry out photosynthesis?

Why do plants perform cellular respiration?

What are the jobs that stomata perform?

What are the female parts of a flower?

What are the male parts of a flower?

Why are some flowers pretty or smell good?
Plant Growth and Changes
Do plants respond to their environment?
Phototropism:
Plants_______
Gravitropism:

Plants________
Do plants respond to temperature and hours of sunlight?
Do you change your actions or does your body do anything different when it gets cold out?


-or when the days get shorter?
The hours of daylight tells some plants when to flower.

-Plants like clover, spinach, wheat like long days to flower

-Plants like poinsettas and chrysanthemums like to flower when the nights are longer
Photoperiodism-when a plant changes its growth in response to hours of sunlight
Trees and the Seasons

-Do all trees lose their leaves in the winter?
What do leaves do for a plant?



Can it do that in
the fall and winter?
________ trees: shed leaves throughout the year, and are better adapted for the cold

________ trees: shed all of their leaves before winter
What are the benifites of
having no leaves during the
winter?


What are the benefits of
not having to producing
color for your skin?



***Think cost and benefit***
Will you benefit?
Does it cost?


Deciduous trees have adapted to the cold by losing their leaves so they will not:

- waste ______
- lose ______ through
.stomata
In the fall ______ trees will break down _______
which allows other pigments to show.

-Saves the minerals for next
year
-Saves energy this way too
Why would a tree keep the minerals but still get rid of the rest of the leaf?
What are three plant adaptations that end with -ism?

Why do we see trees change color in the fall?

Why do some trees lose their leaves in the fall/winter?


What are the male and female parts of a flower?


What are the male and female gametes (sex cells)?
What are the steps that a plant goes through to make a seed?

1.

2.


Which type of plants will produce a fruit?

Angiosperms or Gymnosperms
How does fertilization occur?
1. Pollen lands _________
2. _____ travels down _______
3. ________ unite to form a ____

Fertilization means what type of reproduction is occuring?
What happens in to the parts of a flower as the fruit is formed in most plants?
1. Ovary
2. Ovule
3. Petals, stamen, most of the pistil
What do most seeds need to start growing?


Can plants reproduce without seeds?
Where and how do plants make food?

What do they need to make it?

How do they get each ingredient?

What is made at the end?
What is transpiration?


What is a tropism?
-types of
-what causes them
Seasons

What happens to the amount of rain throughout the year?



What happens to the amount of sunlight throughout the year?



What happens to temperature throughout the year?
How do the seasons affect plant growth?





Types of trees

-Leaf color


-Leaves
Second is whether they produce seeds or not





Third is whether they produce fruit (flowers) or not

Characteristics that make them simple or complex?
1. Most are in Phylum Bryophyta
-Commonly known as mosses
2. Liverworts belong to Hepatophyta

3. Hornworts belong to Anthocerophta
Remembering tip *Triceratops*
Nonvascular plants need water in order to reproduce
*_______ need to swim to find fame



They are often called a pioneer organism
because________________
-Small hairlike structures called ______ anchor
them and act like roots ________
Vascular Non-Seed Plants
___________ are absent
Key development________
Better adapted to ________
Key development___
Better adapted to___
4 groups are:
Psilophyta-
Lycophyta-
Sphenophyta-
Pterophyta-
Same as bryophytes ____ produce sperm, _____ produce eggs and _____produce spores.
Still have motile ______

______ are larger than the gametophyte now
Other vascular plants have true stems, but ferns
have a central stock running down the _____.
Advantages
-Coniferophyta
-Cycadophyta
-Ginkophyta
-Gnetophyta
Gymnosperm Phyla

Common Examples
Key Developments
Advantages
Angiospersm

-The most abundant group of plants
-Phylum Anthophyta

The phylum is divided into two groups...
*** Apical Meristems are _____***
Age of a woody plant
Monocot or Dicot?
Mesophyll
Palisade layer- layers of cells near the upper surface of a leaf, which function as_________________

Spongy layer- loosely packed cells that have fewer chloroplasts, which function as___________


Protectic Layers
Upper epidermis

Lower epidermis
Form Fits Function
Leaves
Form Fits Function
Form Fits Function
(Form Fits Function)
Modified stems

What functions
do these stems
perform?
___________ becomes the fruit
___________ becomes the seed
Tropisms
Apical Meristem and Lateral Meristem
The cambium produces new _______
The cork cambium produces new ____
Primary growth vs Secondary
Transpiration-
What is beneficial about asexual reproduction in plants?
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