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Julie Webster

on 2 June 2014

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Transcript of Terrorism

In the beginning...
The term terrorism was coined on January 30, 1795 in the "London Times" during the
Reign of Terror
in France.
Modern Terrorism
Although the infantile years of terrorism have been marked at the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror, the introduction and popularity of international terrorism has placed the epitome of terrorism at 1970. As a result,
we are currently living in the age of
modern terrorism
Name a terrorist attack.
If you're from America, the first attack that probably came to mind was the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center.

"The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives."

What do the people think?
It's not just an issue between the United States and the Middle East, but a worldwide problem that affects those living within the countries that inflict the terror just as much as those that are targeted.
Terrorism has become a prevalent threat all across the globe. And without a firm definition or set of characteristics for which to look for, it's increasingly difficult to pinpoint and pursue the perpetrators.
In layman's terms...

Terrorism is the act of forcing violence and obedience through terror upon another country or group of people with the sole intention of making them change their current system of government or social behavior to suit the preference of the attacker.

Terrorism is typically seen as the main weapon for smaller minority groups in an effort to gain attention.

People tend to compromise and get things done faster when their lives are at stake.
State Terrorism
Religious Terrorism
The interpretation of religious teachings to justify and even encourage violence.
Political Terrorism
Pathological Terrorism
These offenders terrorize others just for the sheer enjoyment and pleasure of it.
Issue-Oriented Terrorism
Separatist Terrorism
Uprisings commonly led by minority groups with the sole intention of breaking away from a country to establish their own state.
There are 6 main forms of terrorism.
Right Wing
Left Wing
Video: How Do You Define Terrorism?
Although this definition of terrorism has become the accepted form of use, the debate continues over what its true meaning is.
This vague term must cover everything from suicide attacks of small proportions to mass murders of all kinds of weapons.
State terrorism is inflicted completely by the people that hold the power in a country. The state doesn't just sponsor terrorism; It rules with it.
The use of terror by a government to control its population.
French Revolution
of 1793

This form is especially dangerous because of the fanaticism of those who practice it and their willingness to sacrifice themselves. Tactics such as suicide bombings are most popular with this type.
Al Qaeda

To combat liberal governments that favor change and new behaviors over the traditional ways of society.

Commonly characterized by racially motivated gangs that just want things to stay the same.
Klu Klux Klan
To overthrow democratic forms of government and replace them with socialism or communism.
The destruction of social class divisons contributes greatly to their cause.
Communist Party of Peru-Shining Path
Government is usually the one intended to receive the message, but it's the citizens who are targeted with the attacks.
They often operate alone, with most missing the mark of being called a "terrorist" because a political motive is not always found.
Pathological terrorism often goes hand-in-hand with one of the other listed forms of terrorism.
A type of terrorism aimed at advancing one specific issue, usually dealing with society or the environment.
Eric Rudolph's abortion clinic bombings
This form is usually inflicted by discimmination from the majority group
Quebec Liberation Front
"There exists more than one system to overthrow our liberty. Fanaticism has raised every passion, Royalism has not yet given up its hopes, and
feels bolder than ever."
After King Louis XVI was executed, Maximilien Robespierre was appointed the leader of the French government.
He saw that promotion as the perfect time to empower his radical, minority political party (The Jacobins) and to desecrate their enemy (The Girondins).
Thousands of innocent people were killed upon Robespierre's request, forcing the French people into constant fear of doing something wrong in the eyes of the Jacobins.
was the preferred form of execution.
French Revolution = Reign of Terror = 1st Use of Terrorism
There will always be 2 sides.
Victimized Public
"One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter."
- "Harry's Game" by Gerald Seymore
Terrorists view themselves as soldiers fighting for their beliefs by doing whatever is necessary. Sometimes they find that that is the only way to draw attention to their cause.
The spectators and survivors of the terrorist attack often struggle with internal conflict over why they were targeted, but almost always nurse an instant hate and distrust towards anyone or anything associated with the attacker.
Counterterrorism (created in Britain in 1883) has become the banner of this group to eventually end terrorism.

Global Terrorism Database counted 104,000 terrorist attacks.
What's the deal with 1970?
Before the 70's, nobody worried about hijackers (that is, the ones that took over planes).
* The PFLP is the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
**The PFLP held 7 crew members and 5 Israeli males hostage
for 5 weeks, promising to free them only if the Palestinian
soldiers in the prisons of the Israeli were also released.
In the years following 1970, terrorism became an international fear. And politics became the greatest identified motivation for the attacks.
The world was shocked when the PFLP* hijacked a plane traveling from Rome to Israel. Such a tactic was seldom used, especially not for something as small as drawing attention to the deprivation of the Palestinian people**.
What changed?
Someone had a lightbulb moment and invented a new and more effective way of spreading the fear of terrorism.
1 in every 4 Americans say their lives were permanently changed by that attack. That collection of people included everyone from direct employees of the World Trade Center, to first responders, to family members, and even to people living miles away. The psychological implications of living in a country under attack was enough to rack up this percent of affected people. Many reported an increased fear in flying, traveling overseas, and/or going into skyscrapers after 2001.
Who suffered the most?
This surprising attack set the bar for "modern terrorism," as it was called; an era of notably melodramatic and symbolic acts of violence by organized groups with specific political goals.
Surprisingly enough, it's been reported that it's the Muslim Americans that have suffered the most from 9/11.
"The activities of Muslim organizations in the western world, especially in North America, will be watched with microscope. Many Muslim organizations have already canceled or delayed their fund raising activities to support local mosques and Islamic schools."

"The hostilities and hate crimes against Muslims living in the western countries are already on the rise, and when USA and NATO forces will strike against Afghanistan and potentially some other Muslim countries, these hostilities and discrimination against Muslims will increase. It may cause loss of lives and property damage."
"Muslims are still left defending their faith from hatred, contempt, and ignorance as if all Muslims are responsible for the sins of a few."
"There is no cause, justification, or reason for violence or terror in Islam."
Muslims After 9/11
Syed B. Soharwardy, Founder and President of Muslims Against Terrorism & the Islamic Supreme Council of Canada, addressed the effect of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the Muslim world.
What is the Muslim attitude towards terrorism?
Will it ever end?
Before that question can even be debated, the concept of "victory" in the Global War on Terror must first be defined.
The traditional way of declaring a winner of war has always been defeating an enemy on the battlefield, and then forcing it to accept and practice their politics.
It will not end when all of the terrorists are either captured or killed. It will end when the desire to terrorize is eradicated, and completely replaced with other ways to earn attention, dignity, and respect.
Like every other war in history, it can be expected for this war to eventually end. When it comes to the nitty gritty details, every war varies. Some wars are relatively short and painless (like the 6 Day War in the Middle East), others are long and drawn out (meaning the Hundred Year's War in Europe). Some wars end somewhat well (as in the lasting prosperity of WWII), others lead to future catastrophes and destruction (referencing the insecure world following WWI). But they all end.
The Global War on Terror may not end the way we expect it to, but we as democratic Americans are taking the steps to get there as soon as possible. We've boosted security efforts in airports and more densely populated areas, and ensured proper screenings and other preventative procedures in a push to minimize the opportunity for a terrorist attack.
Because of our past experiences with such attacks, we now know how to prevent, respond, and heal from terrorism.
Imagine what we'll be doing to protect our country just five years from now! Terrorists will probably still exist, but will have an increasingly more difficult time carrying out their missions.
The End
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