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Biomes & Climate

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Erica Howard

on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of Biomes & Climate

Global distribution of terrestrial biomes:
23° N
23° S

66.56° N
66.56° S
90° S
90° N
Temperate
Forest
<<
biomes <<
natural
Earth's Biomes
Distant places, same biome?
We recognize that different regions have their own characteristic vegetation types

Yet two places located in very different parts of the world may be covered with very similar vegetation, and be classified as part of the same "biome"

Why?
Weather
is the condition of the atmosphere at a specific place and time

it varies from day to day, from location to location
Lines run vertically, and meet at the Poles.
Longitude
Spaced wider at the equator; Also known as
meridians
.
Because light from the sun strikes Earth more directly at the equator than at the poles, Earth's surface is heated differently. at different latitudes.

These latitudinal zones are referred to as
Polar
,
Temperate
and
Tropical
zones
Climate
is the annual pattern of weather experienced at a particular location

Latitude
has a particularly strong influence on a place's
climate.
Tundra
Desert
Polar Region
Mountains
Chapparal:
Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
Temperate Grassland
Tropical Savannah
Boreal Forest
Tropical
Seasonal
Forest
Tropical Rainforest
The tundra is a treeless biome
with a layer of permanently
frozen soil below the surface
called
permafrost
Tundra
biomes can be found in
many regions such as:

North America
Europe
Siberia
Asia

Tundra is located south of the polar ice caps in the Northern Hemisphere
These latitudes receive mostly weak, indirect sunlight
Much of the year is cold and dark, with air & ground temperatures below the freezing point of water
The average air temperature range is -34 degrees to -12 degrees
Permafrost: areas of soil where the water in the ground never thaws during a typical year
When soil moisture is frozen, plants must be dormant
Few trees can survive in the tundra because the growing season is so short
Tundras are the youngest biome ...
...because they are the areas of the world most recently covered by glacial ice sheets
Animal Species Native to Boreal Forests
We're cute!
Animals Species Native To The Tundra
Animal Species Native to Deserts
Desert Facts:

A desert is any area in which the annual rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of precipitation.
Deserts are home to a variety of plants and animals
The temperature range for desserts are 20 degrees to 49 degrees at the highest and -18 degrees to -10 degrees at the lowest
Also, the temperatures vary and the amount of rainfall is low
Deserts can be found on every continent except Europe
Tropical Savanna Facts:

Tropical savannas receive less rainfall than other ares (50-130) cm per year
Tropical Savannas are home to many trees, plants and lots of grass
The average temperature range is 20 degrees to 30 degrees
Tropical Savanna biomes can be found in many areas such as:

Africa
South America
Australia
Animal Species Native to Tropical Savannas
Animals Native to Tropical Seasonal Forest
Facts about the Temperate
Animal Species native to Woodlands and Shrublands
Facts about Temperate Woodlands and Shrublands:

These regions have less annual rainfall than temperate forests
They are dominated by shrubs called chaparral
The summers are very hot and dry
The winters are cool and wet
Temperate Woodland and Shrublands can be found in many areas such as:

Around the Mediterranean Sea
Western coast of North and South America
South Africa
Australia
Animal Species Native to the Tropical Rainforests
Facts about Tropical Rain Forests:

These regions are warm with lots of rainfall
The most diverse of all biomes
The temperature range is from 24 degrees C to 27 degrees C
Included in this biome are tall, broad-leaved trees, mosses, ferns, shrubs and plants
Also, there are shorter trees that make up the understory of a tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forests are located in the following places:
Central and South America
Southern Asia
Western Africa
Northeastern Australia
Boreal Forests can be found in these areas of the world:
Northern part of North America
Europe
Asia
Facts About the Temperate Forest:

Temperate Forests are characterized by a large number of mostly broad-leaved, deciduous trees (trees that shed their leaves in autumn)
The temperature range is -30 degrees C to 30 degrees c
Summers are hot
Winters are cold
Precipitation tends to vary seasonally - either in amount, or in the fact that it falls in frozen form during part of the year

Animal Species Native to Temperate Forest
Temperate Forests are located in theses areas:

Eastern North America
Eastern Asia
Australia
Europe
Facts About the Tropical Seasonal Forests:

This biome is home to may deciduous and evergreen trees as well as orchids and moss
The annual temperature range is very small - generally staying around "room temperature" year round (~20-25 degrees C)
Rainfall is seasonal:
During the dry season, almost all of the trees drop their leaves to conserve water

Tropical Seasonal Forests are located:
Africa
Asia
Australia
South America
Central America
Facts about The Temperate Grasslands:

This biome feature very fertile soils that support dense grasses, mixed with other herbaceous plants
Temperatures and rainfall vary seasonally
Disturbances or periods of drought tend to keep grasslands from turning into forests over time
(*grazing animals, fires)
Fires don't destroy perennial grasses and herbs because their deep roots can help them recover quickly
Animals Native to Temperate Grasslands
Temperate Grasslands are located in these areas:
North America
South America
Asia
Africa
Australia
Facts about the Polar Regions:
Polar regions border the tundra at high latitudes
Includes Greenland and the Arctic Ocean
Arctic summers can be surprisingly warm
Animal Species Native to Polar Regions
The main Polar Regions include areas that border the tundra, Antartica and Greenland
Ice and Snow
Alpine Tundra
Mountainous coniferous forest
Deciduous forest
Tropical forest
Temperate deciduous forest
Coniferous forest
Facts About Mountains:

Mountain biomes are constrained by elevation, not just latitude
Alpine communities: resemble tundra
Mountains are located throughout the world
Animal Species Native to Mountains
REFERENCES

Schaffner, Brynn. "Blue Planet Biomes." www.Blueplanetbiomes.org. 2010. Web. 8 Sept. 2012.

National Geographic Scociety. "National Geographic." www.Nationalgeographic.com. 1996-2012. Web. 8 Sept. 2012.

www.Glencoe.com/ose 2010. Web. 8 Sept. 2012.

Photos From www.Google.com
Video From www.Youtube.com
Latitude
Lines run horizontally
latitude lines are also known as
Parallels
because they are parallel to each other
Biomes organize the biological communities of the earth based on similarities in the dominant vegetation, climate, geographic location, and other characteristics.
Source: Encyclopedia of Earth
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbed1a7896bb431f68fb45/
"Terrestrial biomes characterize ecosystems on land, and are usually identified by
the growth form of the dominant vegetation
climate
and/or
where they are located on the earth
.

The major terrestrial biomes include
tundra
forest
grassland
and desert

The geographic distribution of terrestrial biomes is mostly influenced by
climatic conditions
such as
rainfall
and
temperature
."
Generally distinguished by:
water depth
whether the water is moving or standing

Major freshwater biomes include:
ponds & lakes
streams & rivers
wetlands
Generally distinguished by:
water depth
whether there is a substrate organisms can attach themselves to

Important marine biomes include:
oceans
coral reefs
estuaries
"Humans have fundamentally altered global patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. As a result, vegetation forms predicted by conventional biome systems are rarely observed across most of Earth's land surface.

"While not a replacement for existing biome systems,
anthropogenic biomes
provide an alternative view of the terrestrial biosphere based on global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems..."
the term acknowledges "...irreversible coupling of human and ecological systems at global scales..."
Marine biomes
Freshwater biomes
Terrestrial
biomes
("Note that forests and grasslands are defined based on the growth form of the dominant vegetation whereas deserts [and to some extent tundra ecosystems] are classified based on the dominant climatic conditions.")
Terrestrial biomes
Aquatic biomes
Anthropogenic biomes
Aquatic biomes
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Temperate_rainforest_map.svg
What does this map show?
"View of bigleaf maples (Acer macrophyllum) covered with epiphytic spikemoss (Selaginella oregana) and licorice ferns (Polypodium glycyrrhiza) in the Hoh Rainforest, Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. A nurse log lies on the forest floor on the left."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hoh_Valley_Bigleaf_Maples2b.jpg
Valdivian temperate rainforest
location: Oncol park, Provincia de Valdivia, Chile
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Valdivian_temperate_rainforest.JPG
Temperate rainforest in Great Otway National Park, Victoria
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Temperate_rainforest_in_Great_Otway_National_Park,_Victoria.JPG
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wa_rain_map.JPG
Desert
Tundra
Forest
Grassland
http://science1.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2002/10/04/11oct_sprawl_resources/fragment.gif
http://blog.ecoagriculture.org/2013/01/22/ipbes_cropland_biodiversity/
http://forestry.sfasu.edu/faculty/jstovall/silviculture/index.php/silviculture-textbook/165-geometric-thinning
http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/news/20120307/628348main_midtown_manhattan_CC.jpg
http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/news/20120307/
Anthropogenic
biomes
Later
http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/42000/42252/phoenix_tm5_2009302_lrg.jpg
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=42252
http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/42000/42252/phoenix_tm5_1989311.jpg
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=42252
Agriculture
Urbanization
Forestry
Residential development
Human-dominated
landscapes
shrubs, grasses & sedges, mosses & lichens
trees
grasses
desert-adapted plants (xerophytes)
dominant vegetation:
Terrestrial Biomes
(*and
aquatic)
temperate grassland
temperate forest
boreal forest
tundra

Temperate
Forest
Tundra
Desert
Polar Region
Mountains
Chaparral
Temperate Grassland
Tropical Savannah
Boreal Forest
Tropical
Seasonal
Forest
Tropical Rainforest
The tundra is a treeless biome
with a layer of permanently
frozen soil below the surface
called
permafrost
Tundra
biomes can be found in
many regions such as:

North America
Europe
Siberia
Asia
Tundra Facts:

Tundras are the youngest biome
Tundra biomes are located south of the polar ice caps in the Northern Hemisphere
Trees cant survive in the Tundra biome
The average temperature range is
-34 degrees to -12 degrees
Because of the permafrost, is is cold and dark much of the year
Animal Species Native to Boreal Forests
We're cute!
Animals Species Native To The Tundra
Animal Species Native to Deserts
Desert Facts:

A desert is any area in which the annual rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of precipitation.
Deserts are home to a variety of plants and animals
The temperature range for desserts are 20 degrees to 49 degrees at the highest and -18 degrees to -10 degrees at the lowest
Also, the temperatures vary and the amount of rainfall is low
Deserts can be found on every continent except Europe
Tropical Savanna Facts:

Tropical savannas receive less rainfall than other ares (50-130) cm per year
Tropical Savannas are home to many trees, plants and lots of grass
The average temperature range is 20 degrees to 30 degrees
Tropical Savanna biomes can be found in many areas such as:

Africa
South America
Australia
Animal Species Native to Tropical Savannas
Animals Native to Tropical Seasonal Forest
Facts about the Temperate
Animal Species native to Woodlands and Shrublands
Facts about Temperate Woodlands and Shrublands:

These regions have less annual rainfall than temperate forests
They are dominated by shrubs called chaparral
The summers are very hot and dry
The winters are cool and wet
Temperate Woodland and Shrublands can be found in many areas such as:

Around the Mediterranean Sea
Western coast of North and South America
South Africa
Australia
Animal Species Native to the Tropical Rainforests
Facts about Tropical Rain Forests:

These regions are warm with lots of rainfall
The most diverse of all biomes
The temperature range is from 24 degrees C to 27 degrees C
Included in this biome are tall, broad-leaved trees, mosses, ferns, shrubs and plants
Also, there are shorter trees that make up the understory of a tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forests are located in the following places:
Central and South America
Southern Asia
Western Africa
Northeastern Australia
Boreal Forests can be found in these areas of the world:
Northern part of North America
Europe
Asia
Facts About the Temperate Forest:

Temperate Forests are characterized by a large number of mostly broad-leaved, deciduous trees (trees that shed their leaves in autumn)
The temperature range is -30 degrees C to 30 degrees c
Summers are hot
Winters are cold
Precipitation tends to vary seasonally - either in amount, or in the fact that it falls in frozen form during part of the year

Temperate Forests are located in theses areas:

Eastern North America
Eastern Asia
Australia
Europe
Facts About the Tropical Seasonal Forests:

This biome is home to may deciduous and evergreen trees as well as orchids and moss
The annual temperature range is very small - generally staying around "room temperature" year round (~20-25 degrees C)
Rainfall is seasonal:
During the dry season, almost all of the trees drop their leaves to conserve water

Tropical Seasonal Forests are located:
Africa
Asia
Australia
South America
Central America
Facts about The Temperate Grasslands:

This biome feature very fertile soils that support dense grasses, mixed with other herbaceous plants
Temperatures and rainfall vary seasonally
Disturbances or periods of drought tend to keep grasslands from turning into forests over time
(*grazing animals, fires)
Fires don't destroy perennial grasses and herbs because their deep roots can help them recover quickly
Animals Native to Temperate Grasslands
Temperate Grasslands are located in these areas:
North America
South America
Asia
Africa
Australia
Facts about the Polar Regions:
Polar regions border the tundra at high latitudes
Includes Greenland and the Arctic Ocean
Arctic summers can be surprisingly warm
Animal Species Native to Polar Regions
The main Polar Regions include areas that border the tundra, Antartica and Greenland
Ice and Snow
Alpine Tundra
Mountainous coniferous forest
Deciduous forest
Tropical forest
Temperate deciduous forest
Coniferous forest
Facts About Mountains:

Mountain biomes are constrained by elevation, not just latitude
Alpine communities: resemble tundra
Mountains are located throughout the world
Animal Species Native to Mountains
Biomes & Climate
How do we categorize biomes?
Significant examples of our biome-transforming land uses include:
agriculture
settlements
urbanization
forestry
...in other words, we've effectively created new "biomes" that look and behave differently than natural biomes.
"human-generated"
...land?
...or water?
2. Are they based on...
...or human-dominated?
1. Are they...
...natural?
http://2011russellbiology.wikispaces.com/Ecology+Lesson+3+Biomes
http://www.csus.edu/indiv/l/loom/wk%2013/biome%20determine.jpg
http://207.239.98.140/upperschool/science/Classes/apes/text/biome%20triangle.jpg
http://rgsbio09.wikispaces.com/file/view/biome_pyramid.GIF/81557545/biome_pyramid.GIF
http://rgsbio09.wikispaces.com/file/view/biome_graph.jpg/81557551/biome_graph.jpg
Tundra Facts:
Where in the world are they?
Terrestrial biomes:
(Temperate Woodland & Shrubland)
Polar: Arctic
Polar: Antarctic
Temperate
Temperate
Tropics
North
South
What are biomes?
If we ask two basic questions, we can identify three major categories of biomes:
HS 219-01
Humans & the Changing Biosphere
Instructor: Erica Howard
Cornish College of the Arts
Fall 2013 | Week 1, 2

Two questions:
> anthropogenic >
> anthropogenic >
<< natural biomes <<
<< natural biomes <<
>>> aquatic >>>
<<< terrestrial <<<
http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/42000/42252/phoenix_tm5_1989311.jpg
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=42252
> anthropogenic >
> anthropogenic >
>>> aquatic >>>
Earth's Modern Climates
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ClimateMap_World.png
Full transcript