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The Southern Colonies

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Anna Morris

on 4 September 2013

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Transcript of The Southern Colonies

Jamestown
Roanoke
The Lost Colony
The Southern Colonies
England 1606
Elizabeth I has died James I now on the throne.
The king issues a charter to Virginia Company of London
The charter granted the settlers permission to start plantations
104 men (mainly gentlemen) and boys (no women) set sail

Goals
Gold
Convert Natives to Christianity
Find Northwest Passage
England's first permanent settlement in the New World

Problems:
Swamp land bred disease
Drinking water contaminated
Colonists didn't get along
Searched for gold, instead of trying to survive
No leadership
GENTLEMEN
1607
First settlers arrive and settle Jamestown
Powhatan's mock execution of John Smith
1609-1610
Virginia Timeline
Starving Time
December 1610 - De La Warr arrives, declaring war on the Natives
1612
John Rolfe perfects a sweet tobacco:
Required large plantations and lots of labor
Made Virginia profitable
Settlers focused on gold again
James I detested tobacco
1619
House of Burgesses
Ship carrying 90 young women arrived, to be purchased for 120 lbs of tobacco each
Dutch warship sold 20 blacks to Virginia
1618
Virginia Company began to encourage private investors to develop estates
Headright System
1624
James I dissolved the London Company, now bankrupt
Declared Virginia a Royal Colony
1651
Navigation Acts: no non-English ships in the colonies
Virginia and Barbados rebelled


1660s
Tobacco prices fall due to over production and many slave laws regarding Africans are passed.
1675
Bacon's Rebellion
Bacon's Rebellion
Governor Berkley of Jamestown refused to retaliate on Indian attacks
About 1,000 Virginians broke out of control under Nathaniel Bacon
Bacon died 1676, but his followers continued to push for tax reductions, voting rights for landless whites, and end corruption
Planter class sought to limit white servants to potentially prevent another uprising

1619 Dutch ship sells 20 slaves
1650 300 black slaves in Virginia
End of century- 14% of Virginia’s population slaves
In October 1705 - "An Act Concerning Slaves and Servants" is passed by the General Assembly
In 1723 the General Assembly passed another act, preventing non-whites from voting and slaves from being freed by their masters
By 1700 slavery was an entrenched, racist practice
Slavery in Virginia
Indians in Virginia
1607 - Chief Powhatan dominates natives in James River area- Powhatan’s Confederacy
1607 - John Smith’s mock execution by Powhatan and Pocahontas becomes intermediary
Colonists steal/trade food instead of growing their own
1609 - The first Anglo-Powhatan war begins
1610 - De La Warr declares war on natives and uses “Irish tactics”
1614 - The marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas brings peace
1622 - March 22: The Colonist raids promoted the Powhatan Tribal Confederacy into attack on Virginia - 2nd Anglo-Powhatan
1644 - 3rd Anglo-Powhatan war: last ditch effort by natives, again hopelessly defeated
1646 - Peace treaty
1669 - Official census reveals about 2,000 Indians remained
1685 - Powhatan peoples considered extinct


Religion in Virginia
Scattered Colonists made schools/churches expensive and difficult
Gov’ner of Virginia- 1671: thanked God that no free schools or printing presses existed in his colony
Most children were educated privately by tutors at home
Anglican Church was tax-supported and became the dominant faith


1699
Jamestown remained the center of Virginia’s political and social life until 1699

Maryland
Maryland's Founding
The idea of the Maryland Colony was conceived by the first Lord of Baltimore - George Calvert
Calvert's dream was to make a haven in the New World for persecuted English Catholics
Attempted to establish a colony off the coast of Newfoundland
Survival was extremely difficult for the colonists
Calvert asked Charles I for a charter to an area in the Chesapeake Region above Virginia
Charter granted in 1632 to the Cecil Calvert
March 25, 1634- First settlers arrive, led by Leonard Calvert. The settlement was named St. Mary's and the colony Maryland.
Early Economy and Religion
Maryland had a climate similar to Virginia, tobacco soon became a cash crop.
Needed labor force
Hired young white indentured servants, most of whom were Protestant or Puritans.
Huge influx of immigrants
Population reduced by disease
More prosperous beginning than Virginia due to -
better leadership
fewer problems with the Indians the colony bought land from the Indians
Rebellion & Maryland Act of Toleration
1635- William Claybourne led a rebellion against Maryland authorities.
Claybourne and his followers were captured, but he escaped.
He returned in 1645 and overthrew Governor Leonard Calvert
A year later (1656) the rebellion ended and Calvert was put back in office.
1649- the colony's assembly, established in 1639, passed the Maryland Act of Toleration that granted religious freedom to anyone who believed in Jesus Christ.
1654- Protestants took over the government, repealed the Act of Toleration and Catholics were persecuted.
1655- Civil war ensued: Catholics v. Protestants. The Catholics lost.
1660- Lord Baltimore regained control
1691- Maryland was made a royal colony and Catholics were again persecuted
1716- Maryland was restored to the Calvert family and remained so until the Revolution
Slavery, Education and Indian Interactions
1642 - 13 Africans were brought to St. Mary's as slaves
1644 - Slavery legalized
Indian interactions were peaceful for the most part.
Purchased land
Manipulated for fur trade
Kill (unintentionally) with disease
There were few schools in colonial Maryland and most were for children of wealthy planters.
The assembly attempted to establish numerous free schools but only one was founded, King Williams School in Annapolis
Founding of Georgia
1732 James Ogelthorpe and a board of Trustees were granted a charter the king.
Georgia -
named after George II
last English colony established in America
funded by Parliament
Purposes -
buffer between Spanish Florida and English South Carolina.
To be a penal colony for debtors and criminals
In 1733 114 settlers reached Georgia and founded the Savannah.
Georgia under James Ogelthorpe
Slavery and alcohol prohibited
There was little intention of large landholders
People of persecuted faiths were allowed in the colony by Ogelthorpe though it was forbidden by the trustees
1739 - War of Jenkins Ear - dispute over land claims between the Spanish and English. Violence lasted until 1743
John and Charles Wesley came to Georgia as ministers.
Ogelthorpe maintained friendly relations with the Indians
bought land
gave protection from white farmers
Georgia: A Royal Colony
1752 - Georgia became a royal colony after the trustees gave the colony over to the crown before their charter ended.
Restrictions against alcohol, landowning, and slavery were lifted.
Rice and indigo became major crops when slavery was permitted.
Profited from fur trade with the Indians, and lumber as well.
By the American Revolution african slaves accounted for half of Georgia's population
Private tutors were the only education available
Georgia's first school would not be established until after the Revolution.
Founding of Carolina
1669- John Locke drafts the "The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina"
120 constitutions
never ratified
1670 - a charter was granted by Charles II, the colony's namesake, to The Lord's Proprietors.
Settlers arrived the same year bringing African slaves with them.
Goals of the Carolinas
To provide for the sugar plantations in Barbados and to export wine, silk, and olive oil.
Prospered from slave trade and ties with the sugar islands of the West indies.
Culpeper's Rebellion
An uprising against proprietary rule in Northern Carolina.
1677-79 - John Culpeper and George Durant imprisoned Thomas Miller, the deputy governor.
Made their own legislature and elected John Culpeper as governor.
He was removed by the proprietors after two years
Tried for treason and embezzlement, but never punished.
Barbados Slave Code & Strained Indian Relations
1696 - Carolina adopts Barbados Slave Code which denied slaves rights and gave their masters complete control over them.
1707 - Indians were exported as slaves, but in 1710 Savannah Indians attempted to flee. They were massacred.

North and South Carolina Separate
Stono's Rebellion
1739 - 50 South Carolina blacks along Stono River revolted and tried to march to Spanish Florida.
They were eventually stopped by local militia.

By 1750, despite the horrific middle passage (the slave voyage from Africa to America), blacks outnumbered the whites 2 to 1 in South Carolina

1712- Northern and Southern Carolina separate into two different colonies.
North Carolina
small tobacco farms
fewer plantations and slaves.
inhabitants were poor, former indentured servants.
Anglican, Quakers
was poorer than neighbors, Virginia and South Carolina.
They tended to resist authority.
South Carolina
had more slaves and plantations.
produced rice for West Indies
slave trade
Anglican, Huegenots
became a royal colony in 1729
James Ogelthorpe
Works Cited
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