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Transcript of VIDEOGAME ADDICTION
DSM does not officially recognize any disorder that is characterized by an addiction to video games
However they have described “internet gaming disorder” as a condition that needs to be further explored and studied
Should gaming addiction be recognized by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction disorder?
What comes to mind when we think of
Retrieved from http://callofgamers.moonfruit.com/communities/6/004/009/645/556/images/4556575022.jpg
...games like this...
...even games like this...
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...definitely games like this...
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SO, why gaming Addiction?
A Case study...
DIagnosing gaming addiction
Five or more of the proposed symptoms for at least a 12-month period:
Preoccupation with Internet games
Obsessive thinking about previous gaming
Anticipation of playing next game
Dominant activity in daily life
loss of time and neglect of basic drives
Withdrawal symptoms when games are taken away
The need to spend increasing amounts of time gaming
Trying to get better computer hardware, better software, better in-game equipment
5 hours per day, 25 hours per week
Unsuccessful attempts to control gaming behavior
Inability to stop or cut down gaming behavior
Loss of interests in previous hobbies and entertainment
Entertainment not including gaming
Not necessarily true in the context were gaming is part of the culture
Deception of family members and others about gaming activity
Again, not necessarily true in cultures like that of South Korea
Feelings of helplessness
Continued excessive use of Internet games despite knowledge of psychosocial problems
Use of Internet games to escape or relieve a negative mood
Has jeopardized or lost a significant relationship, job, or educational or career opportunity because of participation in Internet games
1. Preoccupation with Internet games
3. Loss of interests in previous hobbies
4. Use of Internet games to escape or relieve a dysphoria
5. Has jeopardized or lost a significant relationship
6. Withdrawal symptoms
7. Unsuccessful attempts to control gaming behavior
8. Continued excessive use despite knowledge of psychosocial problems
9. Deception of family members and others about gaming activity
Back to the case study...
Videogames, just like stimulant substances, can increase DA pathway activation
Nucleus accumbens (NAcc)
Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC)
Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
Experience of flow
Altered perception of time
A feeling of control
Loss of self-consciousness
Helpful conditions to enter flow
Match between complexity of challenges and skills
Why is flow important?
“The flow experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it”
Chou & Ting (2003)
Effects of behavioral repetition and flow upon addiction?
Repetition alone not sufficient to cause an addiction!
Addictive behavior formed when repetitive behavior triggers flow
Wu, Scott, & Yang (2013)
Relationship b/w experience of flow and addiction tendencies?
Flow positively correlated with degree of specialization
Addiction tendencies positively correlated with degree of specialization
Treating gaming addiction...
How do we treat Yoo-Chul and Mi-Sun?
Videogame addiction is thought to be a sign of some underlying problem
Treatment has two components:
Treating the addiction itself
Diagnose and treat the underlying problem.
Impediments to treatment
Taking away the escape – demigods in video games gives a sense of control
Lose their social network – on line gaming
Important elements in treatment:
Finding another activity that will provide escape
Allowing the gamer to accomplish goals
Filling the free time that abstinence creates
Yoo-CHUL and MI-SUN are undergoing wilderness therapy where they are detoxifying. They attend group and individual therapy weekly.
may need to be in rehab
Examine underlying psychological issues
develop treatment plan
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
Learn and practice new skills e.g. coping, self-esteem, socializing
Identifying faulty thoughts
Thoughts and feeling that affect behavior
Learning mindfulness and acceptance
So, why gaming addiction?
...because it has become a real problem...
Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/southkorea/7376178/Korean-couple-let-baby-starve-to-death-while-caring-for-virtual-child.html
This is Yoo-chul and his pregnant wife, Mi-sun.
Both are successful software developers with a Respected south korean company.
One day, both of them were laid off.
they had always enjoyed playing online games together, so They played for hours to make themselves feel betTer.
One day, the baby came, but they did not stop gaming.
When the baby came, she was so demanding. THey escaped by gaming with friends at internet cafes. malnourished, the baby died.
So, what went wrong with Yoo-Chul and Mi-Sun?
1. Diagnosing Gaming Addiction
2. Sociocultural Influences
3. Risk Factors and Comorbidities
4. Cognitive Mechanisms & Neural Correlates
5. Sociocultural Influences
6. Treatment Options
860 people, 15-40
56.3% are gamers
4.1% problematic gaming
.6% addicted to gaming
2832 people, 12 - 19
18.3% play daily
9.4% problematic gaming
1332 students, ages 12-18
25% problematic gaming
44,610, 14 year-olds
3% males addicted
.3% females addicted
(Mentzoni et al., 2011)
(Nigel et al., 2010)
(Rehbein, Kleinmann & Moessle, 2010)
(Seok & Dacosta, 2012)
Variation in prevalence across cultures
Escaping reality to join virtual community
At any point in time, playing with 8.12 other players
Eastern cultures: presence of internet cafes
Gaming is part of the culture (e.g., South Korea)
Some proposed DSM criteria is not problematic
Western cultures: more solitary gaming at home
MMORPGs are more popular than other types of solitary games
Games or extension reality into the virtual realm?
What were the underlying neural mechanisms causing Yoo-Chul and Mi-Sun to become addicted to gaming?
Current Policies and Future Directions
RISK FACTORS AND COMORBIDITIES
Personality? No consistent personality types have been associated
Narcissistic personality traits, low self-control and aggression
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Since health may be neglected, there may be medical problems (e.g., obesity or malnutrition)
What about pharmacotherapy?
by Victoria Marshe, Alex Yun, Gayatri Singhania, Pamela Kwizera, IIlyana Boykov Chelsea Chen
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game use: Estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health.
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American Journal of Psychiatry
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International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
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Beyond boredom and anxiety
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Flow: The psychology of optimal experience
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CyberPsycholoy & Behavior
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experiences and online game addiction.
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Internet Gaming Addiction
These regions are activated when viewing images of drugs or internet gaming
After a 6-week treatment:
Those on bupropion showed less craving for internet video games, less total game time and less cue-induced brain activity in DLPFC