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Tara Dailey

on 10 October 2014

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Transcript of Hookworm

Many Sub-Equatorial Countries Affected!
Origin of Hookworm
The Evolution of Hookworm
The Countries Where Hookworm Is Abundant
Prevalent in most countries below Equator, some above:
The Bahamas
Most Abundant in African Countries
DR Congo
Côte d'Ivoire
They have exoskeletons which cause them to molt
Related to insects and crustacean
First animal to have a mouth and digestive tract
The actual evolution is still unclear today
Friday, October 10, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Reason For Research
Realize the many symptoms!
Effects of Hookworm
Tara's Mom has heard about it at work (she works at a hospital)
We thought it would be an interesting parasite to research because we had never heard of it before that
Effects of Hookworm:
effects lungs and small intestines
Note: if someone is healthy and eats a lot of iron they may not experience the symptoms
First symptoms: generally small, itchy rash that occurs as the hookworm enters the skin
Second symptoms: usually diarrhea due to hookworm growing in intestines
Other symptoms: abdominal pain, colic (cramping and excessive crying in infants), intestinal cramps, nausea, fever, blood in stool, and appetite loss

Who is Affected?
Dogs and cats
Humans can obtain it from touching stool with their hands or feet
Abundance of Hookworm in tropics and subtropics because of poor sanitation
Classified as Nematodes!
Many Scientists Contributed!
The Discovery of Hookworm
Multiple people discovered it, different steps
Egyptians found symptoms but did not know what it was
Avicenna discovered worm in many patients- relates to Egyptian's symptoms
Conditions spread throughout mining industries in France, England, Germany, Belgium, North Queensland, etc.
1843- Angelo Dubini performed autopsy of woman and found parasite in her
1852- Theodore Bilharz & Wilhelm Griesinger found more instances in patients; related it to chlorosis
1880- Breakthrough of epidemic in railroad tunnels, Camillo Bozzolo, Edoardo Perroncito, and Luigi Pagliani hypothize it's caused by exposure to feces
1897- Parasite identified as "Hookworm" and decided that it can pass through skin
By: Tara Dailey and Cara Morello
Niche of Hookworm
Juvenile Stage
Moist, warm climate
Hookworm eggs must reside in neutral pH soil
Sensitive to sunlight, they can die almost instantly from contact
Need good oxygen supply
Adult Stage
Are in the human body (intestines)
Case History of Hookworm
These parasites can be utilized for medical reasons
Jim Turk
Has multiple sclerosis
Part of a study that used hookworm-like parasites to fight his disease
Every 2 weeks him & 4 other patients would visit lab & drink liquid with 2,500 parasite eggs in it
Point was parasites would eat away at the intestines and amount of scars would decrease
Wet from 6.6 active lesions down to 2; when he sopped drinking parasite liquid, the number of lesions increased again

Is the Hookworm Successful?
They have a stem and know exactly what to look for (innate behavior)
Host dies at their benefit
They have very simple and efficient lives
Medication such as albendazole and mebendazole to kill parasite
taken for 1-3 days
Doctors can help with any other health deficiencies the parasite caused
May provide an iron pill if the patient has anemia
Life Cycle of Hookworm
Eggs are passed in feces and hatch within 1-2 days
Larvae grow and n 5-10 days they become stage 3 larvae which are infective
larvae can survive 3-4 weeks in prime conditions
When in contact they penetrate the skin; they can go through blood vessels, heart and lungs
Mature into adults in the small intsetin
Live in host for several years
Reproduction occurs inside the intestines and the life cycle begins again in feces

Current Research
Looking for a cure
use drug called K11777
up to a 90% effectiveness in just a single dose
tested on hamsters- cured them completely
Helminthic therapy- where the patent is infected with worms
using it to help treat Crohn's disease, asthma, ms, and IBD
dangers- increase risk of anemia, protein deficiency, loss of mental functions and slowing of physical growth

Will the Parasite be Eradicated? (opinion)
A slim possibility that they could be eradicated because of their extremely size, with the proper research a cure may be found (Cara)
It could possibly be wiped out if the right medication was created, but chances are slim because of extremely small size and they live inside of the body (Tara)
Interesting Facts!
They are not really prevalent in the northern hemisphere
The larvae can survive 3-4 weeks in prime conditions!
Get their name from the hook-like teeth they use to hold onto the host
Some forms of hookworm infect animals, while others infect humans

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"Origin of Roundworms." Roundworms. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://roundwormsaha.weebly.com/origin-of-roundworms.html>.

"Nematode." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nematode#Phylogeny>.

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"Worm therapy: Why parasites may be good for you." BBC Future. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2014. <http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20130422-feeling-ill-swallow-a-parasite>.

"University of California San Francisco." New Drug Prospect Offers Hope Against Hookworm Infections. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://www.ucsf.edu/news/2012/07/12271/new-drug-prospect-offers-hope-against-hookworm-infections>.

"Hook Worms as a Treatment for Crohn's Disease." Hook Worms & Crohn's Disease: A Possible Treatment?. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. <http://www.healthline.com/health/crohns-disease/hook-worms>.

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