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Transcript of Japanese Internment
By: Kim Vo & Jan Patrick Campanano
What is The Japanese Internment?
An event, where Japanese American Citizens were sent to prison camps.
Defining The Topic
Understanding the Time Period
President: Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Common Facts of the 1940's/ Common Jobs:
-U.S. Population: 132,122,000
-Unemployed in 1940: 8,120,000
-National Debt: $43 Billion
-Average Salary: $1299 (Teacher Salary: $1441)
-Minimum Wage: 40 cents per hour.
-Common Jobs included:manufacturers/welders, mostly supplies for war, and women began rising in prominence in the workforce.
Understanding The Topic
U.S. enters World War II.
Fearing that the threat of National Security is now compromised, Discrimination erupts.
Americans became suspicious and began questioning the loyalty of Japanese Americans.
The camps were heavily guarded, and several prisoners were shot and killed attempting to escape.
Life in the camps causes health problems such as an increased risk in cardiovascular disease and premature death.
After the war ended and the prisoners released, many of the interned returned to vandalized homes.
Many victims suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
The Civil Liberties Act of 1988, along with Ronald Reagan's Presidential apology was enacted and recognized, giving survivors $20,000 in compensation.
President FDR signs Executive Order 9066 causing the vast exodus of the Issei and Nisei.
CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT OF1988
Enacted by the United States Congress
August 10, 1988
“The Congress recognizes that, as described in the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, a grave injustice was done to both citizens and permanent residents of Japanese ancestry by the evacuation, relocation, and internment of civilians during World War II.
As the Commission documents, these actions were carried out without adequate security reasons and without any acts of espionage or sabotage documented by the Commission, and were motivated largely by racial prejudice, wartime hysteria, and a failure of political leadership.
The excluded individuals of Japanese ancestry suffered enormous damages, both material and intangible, and there were incalculable losses in education and job training, all of which resulted in significant human suffering for which appropriate compensation has not been made.
For these fundamental violations of the basic civil liberties and constitutional rights of these individuals of Japanese ancestry, the Congress apologizes on behalf of the Nation.”
Based on the findings of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), the purposes of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 with respect to persons of Japanese ancestry included the following:
1) To acknowledge the fundamental injustice of the evacuation, relocation and internment of citizens and permanent resident aliens of Japanese ancestry during World War II;
2) To apologize on behalf of the people of the United States for the evacuation, internment, and relocations of such citizens and permanent residing aliens;
3) To provide for a public education fund to finance efforts to inform the public about the internment so as to prevent the recurrence of any similar event;
4) To make restitution to those individuals of Japanese ancestry who were interned;
5) To make more credible and sincere any declaration of concern by the United States over violations of human rights committed by other nations.
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066
February 19, 1942
Whereas, the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises and national defense utilities as defined in Section 4, Act of April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended by the Act of November 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1220. and the Act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (U.S.C.01 Title 50, Sec. 104):
Now therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War, and the Military Commanders whom he may from time to time designate, whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action to be necessary or desirable, to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine, from which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right of any persons to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restriction the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion.
The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for residents of any such area who are excluded therefrom, such transportation, food, shelter, and other accommodations as may be necessary, in the judgment of the Secretary of War or the said Military Commander, and until other arrangements are made, to accomplish the purpose of this order. The designation of military areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and restricted areas by the Attorney General under the Proclamation of December 7 and 8, 1941, and shall supercede the responsibility and authority of the Attorney General under the said Proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted areas.
I hereby further authorize and direct the Secretary of War and the said Military Commanders to take such other steps as he or the appropriate Military Commander may deem advisable to enforce compliance with the restrictions applicable to each military area herein above authorized to be designated, including the use of Federal troops and other Federal Agencies, with authority to accept assistance of state and local agencies.
I hereby further authorize and direct all Executive Departments, independent establishments and other Federal Agencies, to assist the Secretary of War or the said Military Commanders in carrying out this Executive Order, including the furnishing of medical aid, hospitalization, food, clothing, transportation, use of land, shelter, and other supplies, equipment, utilities, facilities and services.
This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the authority heretofore granted under Executive Order No. 8972, dated December 12, 1941, nor shall it be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, with respect to the investigations of alleged acts of sabotage or the duty and responsibility of the Attorney General and the Department of Justice under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, prescribing regulations for the conduct and control of alien enemies, except as such duty and responsibility is superseded by the designation of military areas hereunder.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
The White House
February 19, 1942
Understanding Multiple Stories
Why These Stories Matter
Born in Los Angeles (A Nisei), and is famous for playing Lieutenant Sulu in the Original "Star Trek"
These stories matter because, these tales of despair and woe serve to honor and preserve the memories of the dead, and turn them into something more than just a story.
These stories also served a dual purpose; to demonstrate the fact that there were other groups interned other than the Japanese-Americans in The U.S. and suffered similar, perhaps worse treatment.
Takei was four when he and his family was taken to the Rowher Internment Camp in Arkansas.
They were later transferred to another camp in California, They were transferred to this camp because, at the time, multiple ethnicities of Asian Descent were denied citizenship; many Japanese wanted to join the military to prove their loyalty after Pearl Harbor, but were rejected and incarcerated.
A year into the internment, the U.S. turned to the camps for additional manpower, creating a questionnaire to test the loyalty of prisoners; when Takei's parents proved they were disloyal, they were transferred to the camp in California.
After the war ended and the victims were released, George Takei returned to Los Angeles, but feared adjusting as he lived most of his childhood in the camps, which eventually became "normal."
Analysis and Reflection
Understanding Changes Since the Time Period Of Your Topic
1948-1983: Multiple efforts were established to create repearations for internment survivors. Bills such as H.R. 5977 and the Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act proposed by various groups such as The commission Wartime Relocation, President Truman and others eventually led to the Civil Liberties Act.
Set in the Dutch East indies, the story revolves around a girl named Annelex, whose idyllic life is shattered by the arrival of the Japanese, who imprison most of the residing Dutch during World War 2.
1940's Street Style
Small, peaked, caps were made fashionable by GI pin-up girls such as Betty Gable.
Trains, trolleys, trucks and cars became a growing staple in the 1940's for transportation.
Issei, Nisei and Sensei
: Terms refer to the specific generations of Japanese who immigrated to the United States.
(verb): To give up.
: The act of making amends.
:The act of confining a group of people.
Annelex, Layson. Lost Childhood, My Life in a Japanese Prison Camp. (n.p) National Geography Society, 2008.
N.A. “Japanese American internment”. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.p) December 03, 2012. December 05, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_American_internment
Pauline, Thomas. "1940-1945 Pictures of Hairstyles and Hats in 1940s Fashion History". Fashion History Costume Trends and Eras. (n.p) (n.d) December 05, 2012. http://www.fashion-era.com/hats-hair/hats_hair_9_hairstyles_history_1940_1945.htm
Harvey, Martin. "OldChesterPa: Tansportation: Hitching Post to Parking Meter; The DelawareCounty Advocate, April 1942". Historic Chester. (n.p) (n.d) December 05, 2012. http://www.oldchesterpa.com/transportation_dca_april_1942.htm
N.A. "World War Two - Japanese internment camps in the US". History on the Net Main Page. (n.p) (n.d) December 05, 2012. http://historyonthenet.com/WW2/japan_internment_camps.htm
Siasoco, Ricco Villanueva, and Shmuel Ross. "Japanese Internment in World War II". Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help. — Infoplease.com. (n.p) (n.d) December 07, 2012. http://www.infoplease.com/spot/internment1.html
N.A. "Children of the Camps - INTERNMENT TIMELINE". PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. (n.p) (n.d) December 10, 2012. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/timeline.html
N.A. "George Takei - Archive Interview Part 1 of 6". YouTube. (N.p) March 25, 2008. December 15, 2012.
Sue, Goodwin. "American History - Decade 1940 - 1949". LSC-Kingwood Library. (n.p) (n.d) December 05, 2012. http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade40.html
"Aaron Huey: America's native prisoners of". TED: Ideas worth spreading. (n.p) October 15, 2010. December 13, 2012. http://www.ted.com/talks/aaron_huey.html
N.A. “Franklin D. Roosevelt”. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.p) (n.d) December 20, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt
What interested me the most while researching was the fact that one of the people who suffered from the Japanese Internment directly is a well-known celebrity today. George Takei, known for his role of Lieutenant Sulu in “Star Trek”, is actually of Japanese descent and experienced first-hand the horrors of being a prisoner of war.
This information matters because, in order for humanity to learn from its mistakes and to prevent such tragedies from coming to fruition in the future, we must preserve the stories of those who have suffered, so that they can live to pass on their experiences, what they learn, and how they grew into someone stronger because of it.
This connects to other people in the United States, or rather even the world, because, no matter where you are, innocent civilians are going to get caught in the crossfire and cross hairs of war, and there will inevitably be prisoners of war.