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The Campus Coffee Shop: Caffeine Conundrums

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Zion Walker

on 23 May 2014

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Transcript of The Campus Coffee Shop: Caffeine Conundrums

The Campus Coffee Shop: Caffeine Conundrums
Cell Biology and Signal Transduction
G-protein coupled receptors
-integral plasma membrane proteins that convert signals from extra cellular ligands to signal intracellular heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins)
Process-
A cell receives a signal that binds to a g-protein that then triggers the interaction between the GPCR and g-protein.

Caffeine and Parkinson's Disease
Intro!
Caffeine is a crystalline compound that is a stimulant of the central nervous system. It is found in many common food and drink items: coffee, colas, chocolate, tea, ice cream, and energy drinks for example.
The chemical structure of caffeine is C8H1ON4O2 located in the methylxanthines class of chemical molecules.

Effects of Caffeine
Often increases blood pressure
Heavy caffeine consumption raises homocystine levels (heart disease)
Coffee can cause emesis (vomiting)
Caffeine can mobilize calcium from cells leading to bone mass loss
Caffeine is a vasoconstrictor and stimulant

Antagonist Receptor
An antagonist is a drug that occupied receptors but do not activate them. Antagonists block receptors activation by agonist.
Adenosine + Caffeine
NA+ increased nervous system activity caused by the withdrawal of the adenosine effect.
Caffeine, when acting as an antagonist, is doing the oppsite of activation of adenosine receptors.
Where Caffeine Acts

Caffeine acts on the central nervous system: brain, spinal cord, and other major nerves.
Its blocks the action of the chemical called phosphodiesterase (PDE)
In neuro, it affects the brain to make it seem as though it is alert but actually needs rest.

Effects of Caffeine on the Cardiovascular System
Experiment:
Subjects will be tested to find the effects of caffeine on the cardiovascular system during dynamic leg exercise
To test the effects of caffeine on the system we made our own experiment
Parkinson's Disease is the result of an absense of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Dopamine is the main contributing drug to Parkinson's disease. The shortage of it causes the brain to become unable to control movement which eventually leads to seizures and low movement speeds. The elderly are the most common to have Parkinson's disease
Conclusion of Parkinson's Disease
Those who consume less caffeine are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with PD.
A possible experiment to test this would be to hold a survey where subjects of a certain age record their caffeine in take per day. Then they will go through the same amount of activity. We will then see how many developed PD as they aged.
Possible varibles being sex, caffeine in take, and current activity level.
Can caffeine be
a treatment to Parkinson's disease?
Hypothesis
Caffeine? An effective treatment?
Caffeine is an effective treatment for Parkinson's Disease because the data shows that those who consume a great amount of caffeine have very few chances of having Parkinson's Disease.
Procedure
1. The subjects will record their Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and cardiac output while resting without the influence of caffeine
2. Shortly after they consume 6mg of caffeine and in 55 minutes record the MAP and cardiac output
Conclusion
MAP is higher during exercise with caffeine; however, the increases were secondary to the effects of caffeine on resting blood pressure.
MAP & Blood Pressure
Vasoconstriction
is when the blood vessels constrict which requires the heart to pump harder and faster to push blood through the small openings. Which causes MAP to rise.
The average MAP reading is 70-110.

Experiment continued...
If one of the subject's MAP was 97 and the other was 98 than the difference between the two would be that the lower measurement would have a smaller opening for the blood to go through.
Catecholamines
Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands
A common type being epinephrine, it acts by binding to adrenergic receptors.
Catechlamine is released when caffeine is digested by the body, therefore the increase in heart rate is not exactly the direct response to caffeine.
Hypertension
If a person who has hypertension consumes caffeine they will have an increased amount of blood pressure in their body which can cause heart disease, hardening arteries, and strokes.
Caffeine Withdrawal Symptoms
headache
fatigue
drowsiness
depression
irritability
muscle pain
nausea
vomiting
Timeframe of Symptoms
Caffeine withdrawal symptoms can last up to 48 hours. Withdrawal symptoms can begin 12 to 24 hours after the last cup of coffee and can last up to 1 week.
Medicines Containing Caffeine
Headache medications contain caffeine because after clinical studies, researchers concluded that caffeine increase the pain relieving capacity of analgesics by 40%.
Drug Dependence vs Drug Addiction
Drug dependence means that a person needs a drug to function normally. Abruptly stopping a drug leads to withdrawal symptoms. Drug addiction is the compulsive use of a substance, despite it being dangerous or negative.
Adenosine Contribution
Caffeine is a psychoactive stimulant that affects certain neutral transmitters in the brain. By binding to adenosine receptors, it acts as an inhibitor, which in turn increases the activity of dopamine neurotransmitters.
Dopamine Contribution
It can contribute because dopamine is known to be a mood elevator key to design drugs to treat it.
Conclusion
Our conclusion is that caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that acts on the brain making it function longer than it needs to. Acting on the central nervous system.
Located in the cell membrane
If the test subjects consume less caffeine by the day, then they will have a higher risk of being diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease.
Sources
"The Effect Of Coffee On Our Bodies." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 23 May 2014.
"Caffeine Informer." Caffeine Informer. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2014.
"THE BRAIN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM." THE BRAIN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2014.
Brain, Marshall, Charles W. Bryant, and Matt Cunningham. "How Caffeine Works." HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks.com, 01 Apr. 2000. Web. 22 May 2014.
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