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Transcript of TOK Presentation
First documented use of PED was the winner of the 1904 marathon, Thomas Hicks, who was injected with strychnine
1967 International Olympic Committee had banned the use of PEDS in Olympic competitions Controversial Issues:
If a champion is stripped of their medals, who takes their place instead? How do we know the runner-up didn't use drugs as well?
Middle schools in at least 8 states (Texas, Florida and Ohio are just a few) are requiring drug testing to join clubs and sports - saying it was creating general awareness of drug use.
Where do we draw the line? Ethics Is it ethical to strip an athlete of their medal years/decades later if their test results prove positive?
Is it ethical to collect urine samples from athletes even though it violates the athlete's privacy?
Is it okay if all athletes are using PEDs? Does that justify it?
Should the doctors who supply the PEDs be punished?
Should coaches and teammates be held responsible for knowing the athlete was taking PEDs? How should they be punished? Discussion Questions If performance enhancing techniques were allowed, how far could the human body go?
Can an athlete who takes PEDs ever be considered moral or"integrous"?
Are there any situations where taking PEDs is justified? Recovering from injuries? Disabled athletes? Performance Enhancing Drugs: Used by athletes in attempt to improve strength, endurance, quickness, and resilience to injury
Some are naturally occurring, easily available, and completely legal
Others are manufactured, illegal, or banned by sporting organizations
Many PEDs can have dangerous side effects Types of PEDs: Steroids: increases muscle size and strength
Peptide Hormones: increase strength and stamina
Stimulants: improve speed, power, concentration
Blood doping: increases number of red blood cells increasing hemoglobin counts - carries more oxygen to the lungs
Narcotics: mask pain caused by injuries
Creatine: delays muscle exhaustion, improves short bursts of power Bibliography Testing of PEDs Side Effects Anabolic
Growth and development
Oral and injectable steroids
Severe damage - tumors
"Roid Rage" - Rage and aggressive outbursts Who is tested? How and when are they tested? NCAA collegiate athletes
1986 - Championship events
1990 - year-round testing (DI & DII)
90% of DI, 65% of DII and 21% of DIII conduct separate testing programs along with the NCAA's. Olympic athletes as well as professionals
International Olympic Committee (IOC) - Anti-doping programme during the Games
First 5 finishers in an event + 2 at random
Random, unannounced testing at the venue where the athletes are based at the Games. Urine Sample - Immediately after an event or random year-round samples
Must be an observed sample collection (same gender) - prevent tampering with the samples
At least 75ml collected and split into Bottle A and Bottle B
If Bottle A tests (+) than Bottle B will be tested. Blood Sample - detection of EBO and artificial oxygen-carriers
testing the blood count
similar procedure as the urine sample. Athletes Caught using PEDs: Barry Bonds: sentenced to home detention, community service, probation, and a fine
Marion Jones: stripped of her 5 Olympic medals after admitting in 2007 to using banned substances
Lance Armstrong: stripped of his 7 Tour de France Titles
What is considered a PED?
How are PEDs tested for?
Examples throughout history
Discussion Questions Thompson, Helen. "Performance Enhancement : Superhuman Athletes." Nature. 18 July 2012. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nature.com/news/performance-enhancement-superhuman-athletes-1.11029>.
Mangan, Tricia. "Effects of Performance Enhancing Drugs." Livestrong.com. 28 May 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/88372-effects-performance-enhancing-drugs/>.
"Understanding the NCAA’s drug testing policies ." National Collegiate Athlete Association . 29 Oct. 2012. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ncaa.org/wps/wcm/connect/public/NCAA/Health+and+Safety/Drug+Testing/Drug+Testing+Landing+Page>.
Heald, Claire. "London 2012 Olympics: Q&A on drug testing ." BBC News UK . 31 July 2012. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19066937>.
Pilon, Mary . "Middle Schools Add a Team Rule: Get a Drug Test ." The New York Times. 22 Sept. 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/23/sports/even-some-middle-schools-now-test-for-drugs.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0>.
"Drug Testing in Sport." Teach PE. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.teachpe.com/drugs/testing.php>.