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Master in English Didactics

Vocabulary
by

Lorena Palomares

on 29 July 2013

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Transcript of Master in English Didactics

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THE USE OF GAMES AS A STRATEGY
TO EXPAND ENGLISH VOCABULARY AND TO FOSTER ORAL PRODUCTION IN AN EFL SETTING
By: Ingry Lorena Palomares Chavez
Abstract
This study was developed with 6th graders from a Public Institution in Pitalito, Huila-Colombia. The study aimed at demonstrating the effectiveness of games as a strategy to increase vocabulary learning to promote oral production.

This action research work revealed that students increased their vocabulary and were able to use it in meaningful sentences. Likewise, they were able to participate in simple conversation by using a coherent discourse.

The study allowed me to conclude that games are a useful strategy to motivate students to use the language, to increase and retain vocabulary and to gain more confidence towards English learning.
Participants
This research work was undertaken at a Public school in Pitalito, Huila-Colombia with 21 sixth grade students chosen as voluntary participants. They were boys and girls around 12 and 13 years old who shared a similar social and educational background.
Introduction
This research project claims that teaching and learning English vocabulary is an important area worth of effort and investigation.

Vocabulary plays a key role in the whole process of second language learning. Accordingly, this study considers that games are a powerful didactic strategy for expanding vocabulary learning and fostering oral production in students.

Justification
English learners have to deal with unfamiliar vocabulary during their language acquisition process.
Game as a strategy plays an important role not only in making language learning more fun, but also in providing students with opportunities to widen their vocabulary and thus consolidate their previous learning
.
LEE, Sue Kim (1995)

A welcome break from the usual routine of the language class
Motivating
and
challenging
Effort
of
learning
Language practice in the various skills
She holds that games are highly appreciated thanks to their amusement and interest.
Significance of the study
This study aims to contribute with insightful new perspectives to improve the teaching of vocabulary through the use of games in everyday EFL settings.

The study intends to demonstrate that students can improve their oral skills meaningfully.

Dynamic activities let students experiment and experience a different set of pleasant emotions where intake is completely apprehended.
Description of the problem
Students faced problems when learning and retaining new words because they did not count on clear strategies that allowed them to learn and store target words.

Their lack of vocabulary produced negative attitudes towards learning English and oral practice.

Sixth graders demonstrated that they did not recognize vocabulary as a relevant issue in learning English.

They had been poorly exposed to vocabulary learning experiences.
Encourage to interact
and communicate
Meaningful context for language use
SEMI -STRUCTURE INTERVIEW

Question number 1 When you learn new words… Do you prefer to write its Spanish meaning, write the English word or make a picture?
 
Figure 6. Strategies for learning vocabulary






STUDENTS’ SURVEY

4. Which strategies were used by your former English teachers to introduce to you vocabulary? Choose two.

Figure 4. Strategies used for teaching vocabulary


MASTER IN ENGLISH DIDACTICS
RESEARCH QUESTION
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

GENERAL OBJECTIVES
*To improve students’ lexical competence.
*To foster students’ oral production

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
*To enhance students’ use of English in a flexible communicative way.
*To raise students’ interest in language learning.
*To lower students’ anxiety and stress

LITERATURE REVIEW
SIGNIFICANCE OF LEARNING VOCABULARY
(BROWN H, Douglas)

CRITERIA ABOUT THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF VOCABULARY
(ELFRIEDA; Hiebert and KAMIL, Michel)

Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition (NATION, I. S.P)
What knowing a word includes
Contextualization (McCarthy), (Schouten-van Parreren)
Depth of processing hypothesis (SCHMITT. Norbert)
Building word networks (THORNBURY, Scott)
Vocabulary teaching approaches (NATION and NEWTON)(OXFORD and CROOKALL)

THE USE OF GAMES: FOR VOCABULARY LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING

Definition "a game"
The advantages of using games (KIM, Lee Su)(RICHARD-AMATO, Patricia)-(WRIGHT;BETTERIDGE and BUCKBY) (UBERMAN, Agnnieszka.)
When to use games
Choosing appropriate games (YIN YONG, Mei and Jang, Yu-jung), (SIEK-PISKOZUB)
VOCABULARY, MOTIVATION AND ATTITUDE
(ELLEY; GARDNER & MACINTYRE), (GARDNER & LAMBERT)

HOW TO PUT WORDS TO WORK THROUGH THE USE OF GAMES
(DECARRICO, Jeanette), (CELCE-MURCIA, Marianne)

Communicative language teaching: Functional use of the language through oral production activities. (LITTLEWOOD, William.)
METHODOLOGY
Conclusions
Stages of the study
Innovation Stage
Research Design
Action Research study (Mertler and Charles, 2008)

This is an intrinsic single-case study (Johnson & Christensen, 2008). My main interest is in understanding a specific case, 601 at Institucion Educativa Normal Superior

Mixed-method approach (qualitative data to understand the results of the quantitative data)

Triangulation (analyze data from different instruments)

Data Collection Instruments
Diagnostic Stage
Students' Interview
Students' Survey
Vocabulary Test
Dictionary usage
Negative Attitudes because of the lack of vocabulary
Storing or retaining new words
Poor access to multimedia devices
Learning and teaching vocabulary perceptions
Objective of the Action Plan


To implement games to increase sixth grade student’s vocabulary and foster oral production.
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS
Evaluation Stage
This stage intended to verify the effectiveness of games in the students’ vocabulary learning and oral production through the analysis of results emerged from the data collection instruments used in the innovation stage.
Video Recordings
How can the use of games affect students' English Vocabulary Learning as well as Oral Production in 6th grade students at Institución Educativa Normal Superior in Pitalito?
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION STAGE
1) USING GAMES IN THE CLASSROOM
Rules and Directions
Resources and Materials
Environment
Table 4. Students’ perceptions about the directions and rules of the games
Table 5. Students’ perceptions of the materials used in the games
2) USING GAMES TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD LEARNING ENGLISH
Table 6. Students’ perceptions of the games
The significance of a positive attitude
Table 7. Students’ participation in the games
Table 8. Students’ behavior during the games
3) USING GAMES TO PROMOTE VOCABULARY LEARNING
Storing and Retaining words
Retrieving and Recalling words
Vocabulary Tests Outcomes
Table 9. Sports test descriptive statistics
Table 10. Sports test Correlations
Table 11. Chores test descriptive statistics
Table 12. Chores test correlations
Students’ awareness and perceptions about learning English Vocabulary
Table13. Students’ perceptions about the role of games in vocabulary learning
4) USING GAMES TO FOSTER ORAL PRODUCTION
Table 14. Students’ perceptions about the role of games in the development of oral competence
FINDINGS
STUDENTS’ IMPROVEMENT OF LEXICAL COMPETENCE THROUGH GAMES
STUDENTS’ ENGAGEMENT IN ORAL PRODUCTION
Findings
STUDENTS’ IMPROVEMENT OF LEXICAL COMPETENCE THROUGH GAMES
STUDENTS’ ENGAGEMENT IN ORAL PRODUCTION
Games as a teaching-learning strategy
Collaborative Language Learning
Affective Factors
Multiple Intelligence Theory
Linguistic Competence
Visual aids as a stimulus for language learning
Conveying meaning no matter grammatical
CONCLUSIONS
1. It was determined that the use of games widely promote vocabulary knowledge and foster oral production in English.
2. Games are demanding activities
3. Games increase learners’ motivation, encourage an active learning atmosphere as well as stimulate their interest in the English class.
4. Teaching vocabulary through games promotes a high interest on this particular sub skill.
5.Games promote enjoyment, increase confidence for taking risks and for participating as active learners in their own acquisition processes.
7. Teaching Vocabulary through games enhance students' oral production
6. The appropriate use of this strategy increases the lexicon knowledge and makes it permanent in the long term memory
Games become an effective strategy to promote vocabulary knowledge since games generate
opportunities to expand vocabulary
through the diverse
encounters
of the target words.

Games are
attractive
and
entertaining.

Children
feel free to participate, take risks
and
learn from mistakes
.

Students regard English as the opportunity to
have fun
at the same time they
learn
the language.

Games not only become an effective strategy for learning, but
allow adapting useful material for evaluating vocabulary.

Games foster oral production when students
get immersed
in the development of the class
Revisiting the Research Question
Conclusions
* To prepare rigorously the game.
*To choose appropriately the games.

* To use technological devices.
*The teaching and learning of vocabulary through reading.
*The teaching and learning of vocabulary through the use of phonetic sounds.
*The resort to ICT and web 2.0 resources to foster the learning and acquisition of vocabulary
*The integration of the strategy of games into the English syllabuses to foster students’ oral production and vocabulary learning.
*The student’s feedback and analysis on the use of games in language courses.
*The importance of using the same game characteristics and resources used during the performance of the games at evaluation stages.
Teaching a foreign language depends on how creative teacher portrays the language and how positive the students receive it.

Games allow students to recognize undiscovered abilities which give them more confidence to freely respond and take risks.

Master, pesonal and self-improvement

To apply new ideas to teach better
Implications for Teaching vocabulary
Final Thoughts
Implications for Future Research
Bibliography
Thanks
Running

Boxing

Hockey

Tennis

Archery

Badminton

Cycling

Bowling

Weight
lifting

Baseball

Soccer

Getting Money
Domino Game
Concentration Game
I can Say the Verb
Sport Fashion Contest
Make up Stories
“The Getting Money game is proof that games are effective for teaching and learning both; vocabulary and speaking, students gave real answers without having prepared anything on a written paper or having known beforehand what to respond. In one sentence “the development of this game was awesome”; I could notice they showed results about oral and vocabulary development”
(Reflective Journal, September 19th, 2012)
.
“The knowledge of and ability to use the vocabulary of a language” (2001:110) CEFR
Meaningful approach-Atmosphere, opportunities, retain-become aware-connections-mental operations-effort to remember , reactivate vocabulary, reinforce learning.
Enrich vocabulary and team work-help each other to remember-interaction increase, more confident and less inhibited, stimulated social skills, cooperative attitude-values and self-disciple
Attitude toward English learning- learning without pressure-focus their mind elsewhere-
students' attention, lower stress-self confidence, take risks- amount of words (learn and retain)-produce messages.
Games promoted mainly three
kinds of intelligences:
Bodily kinesthetic: (
Ideas, gestures, TPR)
Spatial: (Picture
s, slides, colors,
sizes and shapes, manipulation-men
tal ima
ges and pic
ture things in
side their head.
Int
erperso
nal intelligence: (Work in groups, solve problems, tolerance-rap
port)
Three students, self doubt and anxiety
Give time
Cognitive-emotional factors
Games lower anxiety and stress:positive attitudes-discipline, catch attention
Vocabulary presentation; meaningful items
and what operations are performed to retain
items into the memory.
Pre-activities; linkage sound and word
Cinderella-using same pictures
manipulation.
Visual materials.
Games stimulate students’ communicative skills.
Games increased their phonological and syntactical skills- not only in range and and precision of lexical knowledge but also cognitive organization and the way this knowledge is stored in the memory and the acces (learning experiences) to recall the words.
Students were expectant for the new things with which the teacher will surprise them
Students produced chunks, not matter grammatical and mispronounciation. Some short utterances other accurate llearning
L
ee (1979) highlights its relevance and usefulness to promote spontaneous communication, since during a game learners do not think about correct grammar or syntax
Resullts
Results:
The correlation between the two tests is high (0.671) and statistically significant at the 0.01 level. This suggests that a large number of students performed well on both tests but better on the Chores Vocabulary.
The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test showed that there was no statistical difference in performance (P-value = 0.986) between the two tests.
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