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От параметрических инстурментов к полевым стратегиям
Transcript of От параметрических инстурментов к полевым стратегиям
Garden Corner (Angolo di giardino), by Angelo Morbelli, 1912, 20th Century, oil on canvas, 35 x 45 cm Italy, Lazio, Rome, National Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art-GNAM. Whole artwork view. Landscape which looses in the distance, seen from Colma Rossignano in Monferrato, where was the villa of author's family; the foreground is occupied by the ground mainly, where the foliage of a tree throws its shadow, while on the left stands out the mass of bushes cut following a geometrical shape.
Claude Monet, serie del Parlamento inglese, 1900-1904. Back in Victorian Britain, visitors and residents alike always commented on how foggy London was or talked about how beautiful the sunsets were with all the smoke in the air. Many famous artists came to london just to paint the sunsets. We now know what they saw, that smoky fog, it has its own name now. Smog. Claude Monet; Houses of Parliament series (1900-1904)
Diller + Scofidio + Renfro. BLUR BUILDING. EXPOSITION PAVILION: SWISS EXPO, YVERDON-LES-BAINS 2002. The Blur Building is an architecture of atmosphere—a fog mass resulting from natural and manmade forces. A smart weather system reads the shifting climatic conditions of temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction and regulates water pressure at a variety of zones. Upon entering Blur, visual and acoustic references are erased. There is only an optical “white-out” and the “white-noise” of pulsing nozzles. In this exposition pavilion there is nothing to see but our dependence on vision itself. Is an experiment in de-emphasis on an environmental scale. Movement within is unregulated. The public can ascend to the Angel Deck via a stair that emerges through the fog into the blue sky. Water is not only the site and primary material of the building; it is also a culinary pleasure. The public can drink the building. Within, is an immersive acoustic environment by Christian Marclay.
CLOUDSCAPES .Venice, Italy, 12th International Architecture Biennale, 2010. Transsolar Energietechnik + Tetsuo Kondo Architects. Team: Matthias Schuler, Nadir Abdessamed, Timur Kanachat. Cloudscapes explored the poetic nature of clouds and the ephemerality of building materials. By precisely controlling the micro-climate of the space in the Arsenale, a layer of artificial clouds was made to hover above the ground level. This meandering pathway aims to show all three layers of distinct climates in the room: on the ground level, the air is cool and dry, while half way up the ramps among the clouds, the air is warm and humid. When you finally come up above the cloud layer, the air is hot (+40C) but moisture-less. By replacing pressure differences and temperature gradients, the installation creates an hauntingly ethereal atmosphere with changing qualities of light, temperature and sound.
Smart Materials and Technologies in Architecture by Michelle Addington, 2004
Massive Change by Bruce Mau, Jennifer Leonard, Institute Without Boundaries, 2004
От постмодернизма к нелинейной архитектуре: Архитектура в контексте современной философии и науки. Добрицына И.А. 2004
Algorithmic Architecture. Kostas Terzidis, 2006
Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies (Architectural Design) Michael Hensel, 2004
The Pepsi Pavilion, Osaka, 1970, complete with artificial cloud, kinetic sound, light sculptures, and walk-in spherical mirror. Fog Sculpture” by artist Fujiko Nakaya engulfing the pavilion. Organized by Experiments in Art and Technology (or E.A.T.), a group co-founded in 1966 by Bell Labs engineer Billy Klüver, scores of artists, engineers. The Pavilion was the apogee of the “art & tech” movement of the 1960s and, as Klüver often pointed out, one of the grandest art projects of the 20th century. Visually, the most striking thing about the Pavilion, at least from the outside, was how much of it you couldn’t see.
4dspace: Interactive Architecture (Architectural Design) by Lucy Bullivant, 2005
Game Set and Match: No. 2: The Architecture Co-Laboratory Kas Oosterhuist, Lukas Feireiss, 2006
Move (3 Volumes) by Ben van Berkel & Caroline Bos, 1999
'architecture... Time is on the architect's side. The invention of new, time-based techniques expands the imagination, explodes the hierarchy of the design process and encourages the input of different disciplines, enabling the bottom-up thinking of material organisation to be combined with the top-down thinking of virtual organisation. '
Citizens of No Place: An Architectural Graphic Nove by Jimenez Lai, 2012
Emergent Technologies and Design: Towards a Biological Paradigm for Architecture by Michael Hensel, Achim Menges, Michael Weinstock, 2010
The Architecture of Emergence: The Evolution of Form in Nature and Civilisation, Michael Weinstock, 2010
Material Computation: Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design by Achim Menges, 2012
Design Activism: Beautiful Strangeness for a Sustainable World by Alastair Fuad-Luke, Mar 2009
Simulation (Context Architecture) by Andrea Gleiniger, 2008
The Protohouse project was developed in the Architectural Association School's Design Research Lab within the 'behavioral matter' studio of Robert Stuart-Smith by Softkill Design, 2012. The Protohouse investigated the architectural potential of the latest Selective Laser Sintering technologies, testing the boundaries of large scale 3D printing by designing with computer algorithms that micro-organize the printed material itself. Research prototypes were generously supported by Materialise, with additional support from VoxelJet, and Sirris.
Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design (Architectural Design) Michael Hensel, 2006
Residential Tower in Dubai, designed by Ali Rahim and Hina Jamelle, 2007. This digital architecture represents not only merely a technique for producing forms using computer software, but a particular visual taste. The building is designed based on the transformation of four tubes and at same time it integrates all of the mechanical and electrical systems.
"Contour Crafting process" USC, LA, Bherokh Khoshnevis, 2002
First paper: http://contourcrafting.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/AIC2004-Paper1.pdf
'I've heard about' (a flat, fat, growing urban experiment), R&Sie(n), by Francois Roche, Stephanie Lavaux, Jean Navarro & Benoit Durandin, 2005.
'I’ve heard about something that builds up only through multiple, heterogeneous and contradictory scenarios, something that rejects even the idea of a possible prediction about its form of growth or future typology. Something shapeless grafted onto existing tissue, something that needs no vanishing point to justify itself but instead welcomes a quivering existence immersed in a real-time vibratory state, here and now.
Tangled, intertwined, it seems to be a city, or rather a fragment of a city. Its inhabitants are immunized because they are both vectors and protectors of this complexity. The multiplicity of its interwoven experiences and forms is matched by the apparent simplicity of its mechanisms. The urban form no longer depends on the arbitrary decisions or control over its emergence exercised by a few, but rather the ensemble of its individual contingencies. It simultaneously subsumes premises, consequences and the ensemble of induced perturbations, in a ceaseless interaction. Its laws are consubstantial with the place itself, with no work of memory.
‘I’ve heard about’ also arises from anguishes and anxieties. It’s not a shelter against threats or an insulated, isolated place, but remains open to all transactions. It is a zone of emancipation, produced
so that we can keep the origins of its founding act eternally alive, so that we can always live with and re-experience that beginning. Made of invaginations and knotted geometries, life forms are embedded within it. Its growth is artificial and synthetic, owing nothing to chaos and the formlessness of nature. It is based on very real processes that generate the raw materials and operating modes of its evolution.
Cyberspace "The architecture of the GVM is an interactive and fully navigable real time three dimensional entity". Asymptote Architects, 2000
Peter Eisenman Architects, City of Culture, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 1999. For this planned City of Culture, Eisenman designed an undulating, shrouded landscape, creating for the complex a new yet coherent morphology that is entirely complementary to the existing historic city.
"A-Sh" - Концепция мобильного арт-культурного комплекса. Адаптивная медийная система воспроизведения и генерирования Арт-Культурных Пространств. Эдуард Хайман, 2006
Space Reader: Heterogeneous Space in Architecture (AD Reader) by Michael Hensel, 2009
Embryological House by Greg Lynn, 1999
Subdivided Columns - A New Order by Michael Hansmeyer, 2010
An abstracted doric column is used as an input form to the subdivision processes. Unlike the minimal input of the Platonic Solids project, the abstracted column conveys a significant topographical and topological information about the form to be generated. The input form contains data about the proportions of the the column's shaft, capital, and supplemental base. It also contains information about its fluting and entasis.
A Web Oddysey, One Building, One Detail, ONL, 2002. Pavilion for the world horticultural exhibition Floriade 2002
Digital Project Model for the Beijing Olympics stadium designed by Herzog + de Meuron, 2008
CATIA version 3, in 1988
Example of original physical model (right) and a model of the same design, after it’s been digitally rationalized (left)
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Frank Gehry, 2002
Digital Model in Gehry Technologies
Made by Robots: Challenging Architecture at a Larger Scale (Architectural Design) by Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler, 2014
Material Synthesis: Fusing the Physical and the Computational (Architectural Design) by Achim Menges, 2015
BIM Design: Realising the Creative Potential of Building Information Modelling (AD Smart) by Richard Garber, 2014
Digital Cities AD: Architectural Design by Neil Leach, 2009
Ecological Urbanism by Mohsen Mostafavi, Gareth Doherty, 2010
In his seminal work, The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment, Reyner Banham describes two traditions of architecture: one with substantial structures and one without.
‘Societies who do not build substantial structures inhabit a space whose external boundaries are vague, adjustable and rarely regular'
, wrote Banham, referring to the example of a camp fire that provides a gradient of temperature and light that is at the same time dynamically affected by other extrinsic influences, such as airflow and other environmental conditions.
Reyner Banham, The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1973
The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment by Reyner Banham, 1969
A demonstration showing the possibilities of pneumatic construction by Coop Himmelb(l)au, 1971, Basel, Switzerland. The person walking within it makes the sphere move. Diameter 4m
Walking City by Ron Herron, Archigram,1964
Walking City imagines a future in which borders and boundaries are abandoned in favour of a nomadic lifestyle among groups of people worldwide. Inspired by NASA's towering, mobile launch pads, hovercraft, and science fiction comics, Archigram envisioned parties of itinerant buildings that travel on land and sea. Like so many of Archigram's projects, Walking City anticipated the fast-paced urban lifestyle of a technologically advanced society in which one need not be tied down to a permanent location. The structures are conceived to plug into utilities and information networks at different locations to support the needs and desires of people who work and play, travel and stay put, simultaneously. By means of this nomadic existence, different cultures and information is shared, creating a global information market that anticipates later Archigram projects, such as Instant City and Ideas Circus.
D-tower, Lars Spuybroek (NOX), 1999. "D-tower" is an art piece, commissioned by the city of Doetinchem in the Netherlands, that maps the emotions of the inhabitants of Doetinchem. "D-Tower" measures HAPPINESS, LOVE, FEAR and HATE daily using different questions.
The H2O pavilion, Neeltje Jans Island, designed by NOX, 1994, is a prototypical building showcasing a new language of form, utilizing continuous geometry to allow walls to flow from floors and in turn become ceilings. The pavilion was also the first of its kind to fully integrate new media to enhance visitors’ experience and spacial characteristics. The curvilinear geometry of overall form arises from a nonstandart steel frame of curved ribs and straight beams. The pavilion’s external envelope was designed using similar technology to found in aeronautics and shipbuilding, developing a smooth monocoque skin and thereby providing cohesion to the form’s appearance.
Future Details of Architecture (Architectural Design) by Mark Garcia, 2014
Smart Cities: A Spatialised Intelligence - AD Primer (Architectural Design Primer) by
Antoine Picon, 2015
Infra Eco Logi Urbanism: A Project for the Great Lakes Megaregion Paperback by Geoffrey Thün, Kathy Velikov, Dan McTavish, Colin Ripley, John McMorrough, Robert Fishman
Infra- Eco Logi Urbanism is a multi-year design research project comprised of analytical cartographies, assembled histories, speculative design proposals and a travelling exhibition that forms a manifesto for urban architecture within the post-metropolitan condition. The project examines the role of design as a political agent in the context of emerging polycentric urban agglomerations known as megaregions.
System City: Infrastructure and the Space of Flows by Michael Weinstock, 2013
Los Manantiales Restaurant by Felix Candela, Canal Principal, Mexico City, Federal District, Mexico, 1958. Candela used his signature hyperbolic paraboloid geometry, which is a surface that is curved along two planes at once, to create a seamless concrete structure, which sometimes is as thin as only 1 inch. These concrete vaults are not made of precast concrete, but of concrete mixed and poured on the spot over a temporary wooden support structures with wire mesh interlacing the concrete for structural support. Candela utilized hyperbolic paraboloids frequently in his work because they create a geometrically complex yet symmetrical shape, and their formwork is so easy to build. The groins between each parabola conceal a steel-reinforced V-beam, which lends the shell of the structure to be called a groin vault. This V-beam is designed to address temperature effects within the concrete to keep cracks from forming and propagating, not to add additional structural support
Bartlett Designs: Speculating with Architecture by Iain Borden, 2009
Architectural Geometry by Andreas Asperl, Michael Hofer, Axel Kilian, Helmut Pottmann, 2007
The New Mathematics of Architecture by Jane Burry, Mark Burry, 2012
Informal Paperback by Cecil Balmond, 2007
Empathic Space: The Computation of Human-Centric Architecture (Architectural Design) by Christian Derix (Editor), Ãsmund Izaki, 2014
Syntactic Sensations - Diploma project by Daniel Zakharyan - studio Zaha Hadid - Vienna, 2014
Living Pod by David Greene, Archigram, 1965-1966.
A combination of two passions of Greene: the first towards the idea of the sculpted shell: his enthusiasm for Freidrich Kiesler's ‘Endless House’ which informed Greene’s own ‘Mosque’ project [as featured in Archigram 1] and the idea of ‘burrowing’ explored by Greene in Archigram 2. The second towards the ironic as well as problem solving aspects of gadgetry. The pod is the natural fusion of them both. Yet it can also be regarded as the most sophisticated of the ‘capsules’ – there are a number of Greene suggestions for the stacking of the pods in a frame structure.
A vision machine by Frederick Kiesler, 1939
Kiesler developed the Vision Machine from 1938 to 1942 as a method for scrutinizing the process of visual perception. It was later used in the Kinetic Gallery at the Art of this Century Gallery.
“The Vision Machine will enable us to classify the plastic creations of man. Since the Vision Machine tries to demonstrate the different constituents of seeing and of imagery, it should facilitate the analysis and understanding of the various physical-psychological sources which are the origin of plastic arts.”
Endless House by Frederick Kiesler, 1950
"All ends meet in the "Endless" as they meet in life. Life's rhythms are cyclical. All ends of living meet during twenty-four hours, during a week, a lifetime. They touch one another with the kiss of time. They shake hands, stay, say goodbye, return through the same or other doors, come and go through multi-links, secretive or obvious, or through the whims of memory."
Bracket 2: Goes Soft by Neeraj Bhatia, 2013
From soft politics, soft power and soft spaces to fluid territories, software and soft programming, Bracket 2 unpacks the use and role of responsive, indeterminate, flexible, and immaterial systems in design.
Kunsthaus Graz by Peter Cook and Colin Fournier in collaboration with Mustafa Ahmad and Alex Chan, 2004.
The outwardly visible skin consists of 1300 different shaped panels made from thermoplastic material mounted on space-holders. Open-jointed to permit thermal expansion and the escape of warm air to the outside. In the space between the panels and the steel roof covering lie technical installations including the BIX façade, the automatic sprinkling system and the fire detection system. Under these the rainwater can drain away. Within the inner skin membrane are sealed plastic sheets glued to thermal insulation. The entire construction rests on a structural framework of welded steel beams. Technical systems such as air conditioning, electrical and data cabling are installed between supporting members. The final, inner layer towards the exhibition room is an inner skin of finely woven wire fabric.
The completion of such a complex building in just over two years and virtually on budget is a result of the intense use of computer technology allied to a brilliant regional ‘craft’ and ‘experiment’ tradition. The use of Rhino modelling, computer-cutting of infinitely variable sheet sizes and day-to-day tracking led to very few technical hiccups in a building process involving 27 sub-contractors and parallel design nodes operating from London, Frankfurt, Munich and Graz.
'Seroussi Pavilion' by Biothing, Alisa Andrasek, 2007
FlowerPower custom written plug-in: Kyle Steinfeld with Alisa Andrasek
“For the Seroussi Pavilion we looked into self-modifying patterns of vector fields based on behaviors of electro-magnetic fields (EMF). The logics of attraction/repulsion were computed in plan and than “lifted” via series of structural micro-arching sections through different frequencies of the sine function. Additional feature built into our script allows for local adaptation to the site in regards to the section – given that the pavilion is implanted into a quite steep hill EMF trajectories needed to “find the ground”
Invisibles by Biothing, 2003
An interactive installation exhibited at the Prague Biennale 2003.
In The Invisibles the core of the interface is a sound-programming environment that alters conventional forms of musical composition through the incorporation of algorithmically based processes (Max MSP). The user navigates the software’s internal intelligence less like a composer and more like a programmer, adjusting various parameters to indirectly influence the system’s internal network dynamics. Mutations emerge when the system is triggered by the input of various sensors. A current pattern runs back through the process and simultaneously forward to the formation of a new one. Interlacing of multiple strata could be understood as a form of artificial synesthesia.
Genware by Biothing
Aegis Hyposurface - Kinetic Mediafassade by deCOi Architects, 2001.
The idea behind is, that due to the different positions of the small metall tiles, the reflection of the surrounding light is changing. In this way a tremendous poetic way of displaying patterns and shapes is possible.The Prototype consists out of about 1000 of these metall tiles. They are moved by “telescopic fingers” which reach a speed up to 60 km/h and have a stroke of 50 cm.
ZipShape, Research project by Christoph Schindler, 2007
Designtoproduction GmbH, Zurich, Switzerland
A Computer-Aided Fabrication Method for Bending Panels without Molds
From Control to Design: Parametric / Algorithmic Architecture by Michael Meredith, 2008
Taichung Metropolitan Opera House Toyo Ito & Associates, 2007-2009
Geometry smoothing process
The Metapolis Dictionary of Advanced Architecture: City, Technology and Society in the Information Age by Susanna Cros, 2003
Designed Particles Aggregations 01 by Eichi Matsuda, Diploma Unit 4 (M. Hensel, A. Menges), 2003-2004
Designing aggregate particles and developing an aggregation process based on their behavioural tendencies to discover inherent potentials for spatial arrangements was the endeavour of this study. 10,000 3-axial elements were produced and colour-marked in order to make visible aggregation pattern resulting from different aggregation strategies.
Team Shampoo (Pavlos Fereos, Konstantinos Grigoriadis, Alexander Robles Palacio, Irene Shamma), Urban Reef, Design Research Lab (tutor: Theodore Spyropoulos), Architectural Association, London, 2009
Peristal City by Neri Oxman, Mitchell Joachim. 3rd Place Scaycraper Competition eVolo 2006
Para-City by Somnath Ray, 1st Place Skyscraper Competition eVolo 2007
Zero Restrain Mobility by Eduardo McIntosh, Special Mention Skyscraper Competition eVolo 2007
Coastal Fog Skyscraper by Alberto Fernández, Susana Ortega, 3rd Place Skyscraper Competition eVolo 2008
Bio-City by Stefan Shaw, John Dent, Special Mention Skyscraper Competition Skyscraper Competition eVolo 2009
Nested Skyscraper in Tokyo by Ryohei Koike, Jarod Poenisch, 3rd Place Skyscraper Competition Skyscraper Competition eVolo 2010
R-O-B Mobile Fabrication Unit and Structural Oscillations Installation at the 11th Venice Architectural Biennale by Gramazio Kohler Research, ETH Zurich, 2007-2008
R-O-B extends the traditional prefabrication process of construction: the robot leaves the protected environment of the production hall and ventures out to the building site. Housed in a modified freight container, the R-O-B mobile fabrication unit can be used anywhere in the world.
Flight Assembled Architecture, Gramazio & Kohler and Raffaello D`Andrea in cooperation with ETH Zurich, 2011-2012
Distributed Flight Array, Lead Researchers Maximilian Kriegleder, Prof. Raffaello D'Andrea, ETH Zurich, start 2008
Individual vehicles self-assemble, coordinate, and take flight
BlobWall by Greg Lynn Form and Machineous, 2006-2008
An interior product designed for Panelite using a reinvented hollow plastic rotomolded brick that is custom cut by Computer Numerically Controlled robot arm, assembled and heat welded into freestanding walls and enclosures.
Hylozoic Ground by Philip Beesley, Canadian Pavilion, Venice Biennale, 2010
Tens of thousands of lightweight digitally-fabricated components were fitted with microprocessors and proximity sensors that reacted to human presence. This responsive environment functions like a giant lung that breathes in and out around its occupants. Arrays of touch sensors and shape-memory alloy actuators create waves of empathic motion, luring visitors into the eerie shimmering depths of a mythical landscape, a fragile forest of light.
Urban agency, by Roland Snooks, Kokkugia, 2005
this project posits that an organism capable of autonomous intelligent drift through the urban fabric is able to develop emergent architectural form and organisation intrinsic or peculiar to its environment. the proposed strategy is based on a far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic model, where it is the drift of information and behaviour through a population of design agents that is capable of self-organising into new structures and form.
BEHAVIOURAL URBANISM by Robert Stuart-Smith, Diego Perez, Yiota Goutsou, Supervisor: Theodore Spyropoulos, 2008
Design research into emergent urban self-organisation undertaken as part of a collaborative masters thesis project (MA. Architecture + Urbanism) at the Architectural Association School of Architecture Design Research Laboratory (AADRL)
“Parametric Urbanism” is the title of our recently completed design research cycle at the AADRL, from 2005 – 2008.
AADRL M.Arch by Ludovico Lombardi, Du Yu Victoria, Goldstein Xingzhu Hu
Responsive Surface Structure 2008 and HygroScope: Meteorosensitive Morphology 2012 by Achim Menges, Steffen Reichert.
Research focused on the development of a more integral system that constitutes both the reactive skin and the load bearing structure within one material system. Through variations in local thickness and fibre direction it is possible to construct the system from wood laminates only. The computationally evolved surface structure allows for articulating globally doubly curved surfaces with varying density of elements in response to different structural requirements.
ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15, Inst. for Computational Design (Prof. Menges), Inst. of Building Structures & Structural Design (Prof. Knippers)
Through a novel robotic fabrication process an initially flexible pneumatic formwork is gradually stiffened by reinforcing it with carbon fibers from the inside. The resulting lightweight fiber composite shell forms a pavilion with unique architectural qualities, while at the same time being a highly material-efficient structure.
LANDESGARTENSCHAU EXHIBITION HALL, Robotically Fabricated Lightweight Timber Shell, ICD (A. Menges) & ITKE (J. Knippers) Stuttgart University, 2014
Beast, Prototype for a Chaise Lounge by Neri Oxman In collaboration with Prof. W. Craig Carter (MIT) , 2008-2010
3D printed with Stratasys multi-material 3D printing technology
A single continuous surface, acting both as structure and as skin, is locally modulated for both structural support and corporeal aid. Beast combines structural, environmental, and corporeal performance by adapting its thickness, pattern density, stiffness, flexibility, and translucency to load, curvature, and skin-pressured areas respectively.
Qamar and Mushtari by Neri Oxman (Mediated Matter), Christoph Bader and Dominik Kolb (Deskriptiv), 2013-2014
Designed as a single strand filled with living matter inspired by the form and function of the human gastrointestinal tract, this wearable is designed as a an organ system for consuming and digesting biomass, absorbing nutrients and expelling waste. The peristaltic movement of matter within 3D printed translucent tracts is designed to support the flow of cyanobacteria engineered to convert daylight into consumable sucrose.
Sill Pavilion by MIT Media Lab, 2013
"Our research integrates computational form-finding strategies with biologically inspired fabrication"
Suitaloon by Michael Webb, Archigram, 1968-1972
Clothing for living in, or if it weren’t for my Suitaloon I would have to buy a house.
rub-a-dub is a team of architects undergoing a research on the idea of self-assemblage and behavioural patterns in artificial collective intelligence. The research is being conducted at the Architectural Association Design Research Laboratory (DRL) in London under the direction of Theodore Spyropoulos, 2013
The MSc2 Studio, Hyperbody, RobArch 2012 workshop.
The design of the exciting cut-foam pavilion resulting from the 2 week design-build digital fabrication workshop. And diamond wire cutting at Hyperbody's robotics lab.
Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming by Mark Burry, 2011
Minibuilders by Shihui Jin, Stuart Maggs, Dori Sadan and Cristina Nan, Saša Jokić, Petr Novikov IAAC, 2013
Mobile Robotic Fabrication System for Filament Structures by Maria Yablonina, ICD, 2015
“In Orbit” by Tomás Saraceno at K21 Staendehaus, 2013
Interior gulf stream by Philippe Rahm architectes, 2008
Housing and studio for Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster
Patagonia by Xefirotarch, 2008
От параметрических инструментов
к полевым стратегиям
Slinkybot, AA DRL, 2016