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The American Civil War
Transcript of The American Civil War
What exactly is a CIVIL WAR???
What are some other examples of Civil Wars throughout history?
What are some possible motives for Civil War to break out within a country?
Setting the Scene:
Many different factors and issues contributed to the outbreak of the American Civil War
These factors contributed to a build-up of tension and the outbreak of violence between the North and South resulting in the secession of the South and the creation of the Confederacy
What were the causes of the Civil War?
What caused the South to secede?
Could the Civil War have been prevented?
-RESEARCH and find the causes of secession and the Civil War as a whole (THERE ARE A BUNCH)
Create a list of these causes including any important dates and details regarding the topic
You may use the internet for this research as well as your textbook ( pgs 344-373)
LIST THE CAUSES CHRONOLOGICALY
BE SURE to explain WHY each item on your list is a cause for secession and the Civil War
*This will be your first classwork grade
Could the Civil War have been prevented?
The Fall of Fort Sumter
Federal Fort off the coast of Charleston, SC
Still occupied by Union troops even after secession
Confederates preventing supplies from reaching the fort in a way to force them out
Lincoln faced with two choices
1. Force supplies through & ignite a war
2. Let the fort go & acknowledge the authority of the Confederacy
Lincoln informs the government of SC that he is sending food, not arms or ammunition, to Fort Sumter
April 12, 1861- Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter after a refusal of surrender
Battle lasted for 34 hours before the fort was surrendered to the Confederacy
Fort Sumter was the opening battle of the Civil War...
By firing on Federal property, the Confederacy committed an act of open rebellion
Lincoln immediately began calling for troops
This resulted in the UPPER South seceding and joining the Confederacy
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, & Arkansas
Advantages & Disadvantages
CREATE a chart within your notes to display the Strengths & Weaknesses for both the Union & the Confederacy
Sizing up both sides
* BE PREPARED to explain WHY you believe each is a strength vs weakness
* You may utilize the internet to complete your chart as well as your textbook (Pgs. 382-383)
Union Military Strategy
-Naval blockade of the South
Lincoln wanted to cut off trade in the South
Winfield Scott came p w/ blockade & implemented it
-After blockade is in place, send Scott to take the Mississippi
This would cut the Confederacy in two and weaken them greatly
Nicknamed the Anaconda Plan
-Finally, slowly amass the needed number of troops to be able to successfully invade & reclaim the South
Confederate War Strategies
-Prepare and wait it out
"All we ask is to be let alone"
Hoped Lincoln would let them go in peace
-The South was on the defensive
-War of Attrition
Inflict continuous losses and weaken your enemy until they give up
This strategy did not take the North's strengths into account
-Stop trying to supply cotton (trying to break blockade)
Loss of cotton in international industry would bring the British and French to their side to help them win and regain cotton supplies
Europeans turned to other sources for cotton resulting the the South's plan backfiring
War in the West
War in the East
Create a timeline showing the major battles of the Civil War
Battles of the Civil War
Two major fronts to the war:
*Include Battle name, location, date, and brief description of what happened, who won, etc.
* The TOP HALF of the timeline will be for battles in the EAST
*The BOTTOM HALF of the timeline will be for battles in the WEST
Politics in the South
-Dealing with a plethora of different issues
Practical and political problems of war
Long & costly
Confederate Constitution created problems
recognized states rights & slavery
caused problems throughout the war
Convince the South to be loyal to new gov.
Not enough men to fill the needs of army
Mobilizing for War
-Immense numbers of men needed to fight
Many volunteered as soon as war broke out
General Lee instituted a draft-required military service
1862-Confederate government passed the draft
Wealthy could buy out of their service
Many argued that this violated states rights
Required men between the ages of 18 & 35 to sign up
Eventually this was raised to 45, then to 50
Mobilizing for War
-Confederacy took control of Southern economy
determined the amount of certain goods being produced and distributed
wool, cotton, leather, etc.
farmers were required to contribute 1/10th of produce to war effort
seized control of Southern railroads from private owners
imposed a tax on personal incomes
authorized the seizure of male slaves for military labor
Seeking Help from Europe
-Union blockade cut off trade in the South
particularly cut off trade of cash crops (cotton, tobacco, etc.)
-The Confederacy hoped for intervention from Europe
-Great Britain and France did plead with Union to forgo conflict
Failed to gain recognition as an independent nation
Great Britain did allow the Confederacy to contract the constructions of ships in their ports
Great Britain opinion regarding conflict was divided
some sympathized with Southerners
many believed that an independent South would make for better trade and a better market for British goods
however, their was a strong anti-slavery sentiment in Great Britain
Some concern over the South's ability to win the war
British decided to just wait and see what would happen w/ the conflict before jumping in
Politics in the North
-Faced similar issues as the South
Needed to raise troops, create loyalty and uniting the country behind the war effort
-Dealt with international crisis
Increased tension with Great Britain as they played games regarding supporting the South
Union protested Great Britain's involvement
Strained relationship at best
-Republicans controlled Congress following the Southern Democrats leaving the federal government
Passed the first federal income tax in 1861
Imposed taxes between 3% & 5%
Internal Revenue Act of 1862
Imposed tax on liquor, tobacco, medicine, newspaper ads, etc.
Reformed the national banking system
previously America had relied on state banks
1862-Congress passed law to have a national currency
greenbacks-paper money not backed by gold standard
Opposition to the War
-Similar to the Confederate strategy, the Union instituted a draft
Draft was put into place in 1863
Union expected a long, difficult war and needed more men
Wealthy could buy out their conscription
Many opposed the draft
violence broke out in protest in cities like NYC
-Union also faced political opposition
made up of the Democrats who remained
warned against flood of freed slaves following influx of Republican legislation that could negatively impact job opportunities
urged Northerners to resist draft and desert Union army
Which battle was the more significant turning point in the Civil War? Vicksburg or Gettysburg?
Watch the following videos
Determine which battle was more or a turning point
Gather evidence to support your choice
The End is Approaching ...
Create a graphic organizer showing the events that led to the surrender of the South
Describe the event/ factor
Note the significance of each event
Be sure to be complete and explain!
Use pgs 410-416 in your text to complete this chart
Sherman Video Questions:
Complete the map & answer the following questions regarding the video:
1. What was the objective of Sherman and his troops?
2. What is the "great myth" of Sherman's march?
3. What strategies did Sherman use to achieve movement?
4. Were these strategies successful? How were they different from previously used strategies?
5. Who were the foragers? Who were the bummers?
6. Why is Sherman considered one of the most controversial generals in American history?
7. What were the SHORT TERM and LONG TERM consequences of Sherman's march to the sea?
Grant takes Command
Lincoln was up for re-election in Nov. 1864
Realized that his dream of reelection rested on the Union's success in battle
Ulysses S. Grant summoned to take command of the entire Union forces
Grant has a plan to continue positive momentum of the Union forces
Wanted to crush Confederate army before election
Was up against General Lee who was short on men and supplies
Grant would use the North's population and industry to weaken the South
Confederate capital= Richmond
The Confederates still held hope of keeping the Union out of Richmond
By 1864, the strategy was to just hold on as long as possible
Union to have presidential election in later that year in November
Hoped Lincoln would be replaced, following negotiations to end war
The Confederacy by 1864
Election of 1864
Lincoln faced the challenge of re-election as well as nomination from his own party
-committed to emancipation
-wanted to punish the South
-backed their own candidate (John C. Fremont) instead of Lincoln
-Fremont eventually withdrew
Lincoln nominated as Republican candidate w/ new VP
Democrats nominated General George McClellen
McClellen promised to negotiate w/ Confederacy if elected
Major victory in the South (capture of Atlanta) solidified support for Lincoln and diminished feeling of peace in the North
Lincoln was re-elected & would serve a second term
Sherman in Georgia
General William Sherman-in charge of war in the West
Grant was battling Lee while Sherman traveled southeast towards Atlanta in July of 1864
Similar strategy to Grant
HUGE contingent of troops (98,000)
Confederates could fight and endure massive casualties or refuse to fight & leave Atlanta to Sherman
General Hood (Confederate) went up against Sherman's massive troops
Lost thousands of troops to Sherman in a series of battles
Laid siege to the city
Confederates abandon Atlanta by early September, 1864
The End of the War
April 9, 1865
Appomattox Court House, Virginia
Grant surrounded Lee
Both generals met in a private home to discuss the situation
Lee surrendered to Grant
Terms of surrender:
Southern soldiers could take their horses and go home
Would not be punished as traitors as long as they obeyed the laws where they lived
Grant did overly celebrate victory: In his mind, the South's misfortune was not to celebrated since they were once again part of the Union
The date is April 16, 1865
The location is Washington D.C.
Design the front page of a newspaper detailing the major events going on around this date
Provide 2 MAJOR stories w/ a write up/ picture/ illustration to go along
Include who, what, where, when, why
Create2 MINOR stories/ advertisements
Keep them relevant and in the correct time period