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Penn Resiliency program

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on 28 April 2015

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Transcript of Penn Resiliency program

Lesson 2 Short Story:
“Dark Danny“ demonstrated a
pessimistic thinking style
. When a friend encouraged Danny to try out for the school soccer team, Danny mentioned several personal and stable
deficiencies
. He convinced his friend that trying out for the team would be
pointless
and that it is
not worth the effort
to practice.

In a parallel skit, “Hopeful Holly” encountered the same situation but responded with an
optimistic thinking style
. Although she recognized that making the team would be difficult, she concluded that she has a
good chance

if she practices before the tryouts.

Penn Resiliency program
Foundations
A
dversity/Activating Event -
B
eliefs -
C
onsequences
Assertiveness, Negotiation training
- to increase likelihood of adolescents reaching out to connect with others
Communication Skills
Explanatory style

- our habitual way of explaining events in our lives
Reattribution training
- enhances realistic optimism and flexible thinking
Self-Esteem
Coping Skills
Goal Setting
- realistic, manageable goals




12 90-minute lessons or 18-24 60-minute lessons
Lessons cover:
Resilience concepts and skills
Introduced through skits, role playing, short stories, or cartoons
Practiced using hypothetical examples relevant to real-world situations
Weekly homework
Encouraged to use new skills in daily life

Lesson Plan Layout
Teaching well-being

The
Penn Resiliency Program (PRP)
is a cognitive–behavioral group intervention designed for late elementary and middle school students (5th to 8th grade; Ages 10–14 years).

PRP promotes
optimism
by teaching students to think more realistically and flexibly about problems they encounter (Seligman, 2011).

Goal:
To increase students’ ability to handle day-to-day problems that are common among adolescents (Gillham, Reivich, & Jaycox, 2008)
Designed by the Positive Psychology Center at Pennsylvania State University

Utilizes CBT theories on depression:
Aaron Beck
Ellis' ABC model
Martin Seligman



(University of Pennsylvania, 2007)

(University of Pennsylvania, 2007)

(University of Pennsylvania, 2007)
Structure
Lesson 1:
Discuss the link between thoughts and feelings - ABC Model
Think about recent activating events and what they “said to themselves”

Lesson 2:
Thinking styles (Optimism & Pessimism/ Stable & Unstable)
Always
thoughts

(Miloseva & Marelja, 2009)
Lesson 1 Cartoon:
Lesson 3:

Learn to evaluate the accuracy of beliefs
Generating alternative thoughts by examining all evidence (i.e., being like Sherlock Holmes) and not jumping to conclusions too quickly in the face of a problem (i.e., Merlock Worms)
Searching for evidence - "The File Game" Activity

Challenging Beliefs: Alternatives and Evidence
Evaluating Thoughts and Putting It In Perspective
PRP Components
Lesson 4:
Decatastrophizing
The "putting it in perspective" skill and evaluating the most likely outcomes of problematic situations.
After the group leader discussed these skills, students practiced using situations in their own lives.
(Positive Psychology Center, 2007)
(Positive Psychology Center, 2007)
Lesson 5:
Review of Lessons 1-4
Lesson 6:
Assertiveness and Negotiation
Aggression, Passivity, and Assertiveness
Students role play three different interactions using various situations, such as a child with a friend who repeatedly cancels plans at the last minute. The students practice displaying three different responses,
aggressive
(Bully Brenda)
,
passive
(Pushover Pete)
, and
assertive
(Say It Straight Samantha)
.
DEAL (
D
escribe the problem.
E
xplain how you feel.
A
sk for a change.
L
ist the improvements the change would make.)

Lesson 4:
(Center for Clinical Interventions, 2014)
Lesson 4: My Thought Diary
Coping Strategies
Controlled breathing, muscle relaxation, positive visual images
Goal
: Decrease the emotional intensity

Graded Task and Social Skills Training
Lesson 8:
All or nothing thinking
Goal
: Learning to break large tasks down into smaller, more manageable parts to prevent procrastination

Decision Making and Review of Lessons 6-8
Lesson 10:
Social Problem-Solving
5-step approach - thinking before acting
1) Stop and think- make sure you’re interpreting the problem and thinking about others’ perspectives accurately
2) Identify your goals
3) Brainstorm to create a list of possible solutions
4) Make a decision by considering likely outcomes
5) Enact the solution

Lesson 11:
Practice Social Problem-Solving Steps with Personal Situations

Lesson 12:
Program Review and Party
Empirical Findings
PRP is the most widely researched depression-prevention program in the world.
During the past 20 years, there have been twenty-one studies conducted to evaluate PRP in comparison to control groups; more than 3,000 children (Seligman, 2011)

Young people who participate in PRP have fewer symptoms of depression compared to a control group (Brunwasser, Gillham, & Kim, 2009).

PRP provides significant prevention of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder diagnoses with lasting effects that often endure for 2 years or more (Gilham, et al., 2006)

PRP has significant preventative effects on disruptive behaviors and provides long-term effects on behavioral (externalizing) problems (Cutuli, Chaplin, Gillham, Reivich, & Seligman, 2006)

PRP did
not
significantly reduce depressive symptoms in groups of patients with low adherence (Seligman, 2011)
(Positive Psychology Center, 2007; Mann, 2008)

(Positive Psychology Center, 2007)
(Positive Psychology Center, 2007)
(Positive Psychology Center, 2007)
Lesson 7:
diverse populations & Efficacy
Lesson 9:
A 2-year follow-up study with 168 low-income Latino and African American middle school students at-risk of developing depressive symptoms:
Some beneficial effects for Latino children
African American children in PRP and in control condition reported reduction in depressive symptoms (Cardemil et al., 2007)
Conclusion
The Penn Resiliency Program is an evidence-based intervention that promotes optimism and hope in young adolescents. Future research on efficacy with diverse populations and widespread practical implementation is needed.
(Center for Clinical Interventions, 2014)
PRP Jeopardy
Diverse Settings
PRP research studies have modified program delivery to reflect ethnic, racial, and cultural differences.
Diverse story characters, social values of population (e.g., In Chinese culture, restraint and social harmony are valued) (Lopez et al., 2002)

Although typically a school-based program, PRP has been evaluated in other settings, including juvenile detention centers (Miller, 1999).
Sample: 56 adolescents (14 to 18-year old,mostly male) no significant improvements in depressive symptoms
Training & Implementation
Group leaders typically receive extensive training and supervision
The quality of the group leader is imperative for positive outcomes
Training: 3-10 days
Group Supervision: Meet once every 1-2 weeks while delivering PRP program

Variability in PRP effectiveness appears to be related to the level of training and supervision
Training and Supervision Information Form available on University of Pennsylvania website
Pros
Cons
+ There is extensive research supporting PRP's effectiveness in preventing depression symptoms compared to control groups
- The majority of PRP studies have been conducted by program developers

- Large universal effectiveness studies produced mixed results; findings varied by school (Gillham et al., 2007)

-Potential group leaders require extensive training to conduct groups.

- Information regarding cost and availability of training is not easily accessible.

- Further research with diverse populations, specifically African Americans, is needed
+ PRP targets children in early adolescence: a critical period for social and emotional development

+ Grounded in evidence-based Cognitive-Behavioral theories

+ Curriculum can be adapted to take into account differences across cultures (e.g., values)

+ May be used as a preventative measure
(University of Pennsylvania, 2006)
References Cont.

Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., & Jaycox, L. H. (2008). The Penn Resiliency Program. Unpublished manuscript, University of Pennsylvania.

Lopez, S. J., Edwards, L., Teramoto Pedrotti, J., Ito, A., & Rasmussen, H. N. (2002). Culture counts: Examinations of recent applications of the penn resiliency program or, toward a rubric for examining cultural appropriateness of prevention programming.
Prevention & Treatment, 5
(1).

Mann, J. E. (2008).
Handbook of prevention and intervention programs for adolescent girls.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Miller, J.B. (1999). The effect of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention on depressive symptoms in an incarcerated adolescent delinquent population (juvenile delinquents). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wright Institute Graduate School of Psychology: Berkeley.

Miloseva, L. & Marelja, J. (2009). Positive psychology program: how to prevent depression in early adolescence. Retrieved from http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/6654/6/Zadar,%20Pozitivna%20psihologija.pdf

Positive Psychology Center. (2007). Description of prp lessons. Retrieved from http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/prplessons.pdf

Seligman, M. E. P. (2011).
Flourish.
New York, New York: Atria.

University of Pennsylvania. (2006). Group training and supervision. Retrieved from http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/prpleadertraining.htm

University of Pennsylvania. (2007). Resilience training in children. Retrieved from http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/prpsum.htm
References
Brunwasser, S. M., Gillham, J. E., & Kim, E. S. (2009). A meta-analytic review of the Penn Resiliency Program’s effect on depressive symptoms.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
, 77, 1042–1054.

Cardemil, E. V., Reivich, K. J., Beevers, C. G., Seligman, M. E. P., & James, J. (2007). The prevention of depressive symptoms in low-income, minority children: Two-year follow-up.
Behaviour Research and Therapy
,
45,
313-327.

Center for Clinical Interventions. (2014). Perfectionism in perspective. Retrieved from http://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/docs/6%20Challenging%20my%20perfectionistic%20thinking.pdf

Center for Clinical Interventions. (2014). Put off procrastinating. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/docs/Procrastination%20Module%205_Practical%20Techniques.pdf

Cutuli, J.J., Chaplin, T.M., Gillham, J.E., Reivich, K.J., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2006). Preventing co-occurring depression symptoms in adolescents with conduct problems: the Penn Resiliency Program.
New York Academy of Sciences, 1094,
282-286.

Gillham, J. E., Hamilton, J., Freres, D. R., Patton, K., & Gallop, R. (2006). Preventing depression among early adolescents in the primary care setting: A randomized controlled study of the Penn Resiliency Program.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
, 34, 203–219.

Gillham, J., Reivich, K., Freres, D., Chaplin, T., Shatte, A., Samules, B., et al. (2007). School-based prevention of depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency Program. J
ournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
, 75, 9-19.









http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/seligmanvideo2009.mov
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