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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

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by

Dimple Khatter

on 31 July 2014

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Transcript of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Research
Treatment: 1/3 of patients do not respond to therapy or SSRIs
Goals: develop treatments for OCD that work more effectively

Symptoms
Ways of Showing Symptoms
Contamination
Hoarding
"Just right" OCD
Scrupulosity

Ways to Categorize OCD Symptoms
Autogenous
Reactive

Neurological Mechanisms
The scientific community is not completely aware of the causes of OCD
Genetic Contributions
Association on chromosome 9 near PTRPD gene
Vulnerability to OCD can be inherited
OCD can run in families


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Animals with OCD-like behaviors
Horses - stall vices
Dogs - tail chasing or ADL
Cats - pica or wool-sucking
Pigs - chain-chewing or bar-biting
most animals responded well to SSRIs: Prozac and Zoloft
Research into genetics
Definition
Anxiety disorder
Patients must succumb to compulsions to alleviate stress
Sliding scale - not an on/off switch
Treatment
Medication
Antidepressants
Anti-anxiety medications
Many side effects
usually coupled with psychotherapy for best resuls


Treatment
Psychotherapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Exposure and Response Prevention is most effective

Treatment

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Clomipramine (Anafril)
Side effects include anticholinergenic effects
Fluoxetine (Prozac) - similar to clomipramine


Sample 1: patients with OCD
High levels of glutamate in CSF for sample 1 patients
Sample 2: control patients
Neurological Mechanisms
Comorbidity
often linked with other disorders
Tourette's
ADHD
45 - 60% of TS suffer from OCD
about 2/3 of OCD patients have at least one other disorder
Neurological Mechanisms
Many circuits in the brain
cortico-striatal-thalamus-cortical loop (CSTC)
orbitofrontal cortex
neuronal loops
starting to research into genetics using twins
Thanks for listening!!

Irregular amounts of neurotransmitters in CSF
serotonin
dopamine
glutamate



Citations
The areas of the brain affected in obsessive compulsive disorder. Digital image. Cnsforum.com. Lundbeck Institute. Web. 29 July 2014.
Genetics in OCD. Digital image. Jamanetwork.com. Web. 31 July 2014.
Graybiel, Ann M., and Scott L. Rauch. "Toward a Neurobiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." Review. 343-347 28 (2000). Web. 27 July 2014.
Humble, Mats B., Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, Ingemar Engström, and Susanne Bejerot. "Plasma Oxytocin Changes and Anti-obsessive Response during Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment: A Placebo Controlled Study." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 23 Dec. 2013. Web. 27 July 2014.
Jiang, Kevin. "Genetic Analysis Reveals Insights into Genetics of OCD, Tourette’s - See More At: Http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2013/11/01/genetic-analysis-reveals-insights-genetics-ocd-tourette-s#sthash.64xfPuog.dpuf." U Chicago News. 1 Nov. 2013. Web. 27 July 2014.
Nestadt, Gerald, Marco Grados, and Jack F. Samuels. "Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33.1 (2010): 141-58. Psychiatry Online. Focus. Web. 27 July 2014.
"Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders." Stanford.edu. Stanford School of Medicine, 2014. Web. 20 July 2014.
OCD Checklist. Digital image. Web. 31 July 2014.
Pauls, David L. "The Genetics of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Review." Nih.gov. PMC. Web. 31 July 2014.
The Serotonin Pathways in OCD. Digital image. Cnsforum.com. Lundbeck Institute. Web. 29 July 2014.
SSRI. Digital image. Ocduk.org. OCD-UK. Web. 29 July 2014.
Subirà, Marta, Pino Alonso, and Cinto Segalàs. "Brain Structural Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients with Autogenous and Reactive Obsessions." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 30 Sept. 2013. Web. 27 July 2014.
"What Is OCD, or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?" International OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) Foundation. Web. 27 July 2014.
Williams, Alishia D., and Jessica R. Grisham. "Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) of Obsessive Compulsive Beliefs." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 09 Oct. 2013. Web. 27 July 2014.
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