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Transcript of Carnival
Desfiles de Escolas de Samba
Samba is syncronic to carnival, while samba is the music and the dance steps, carnival is the popular festival where samba is officially played.
What and how is the Brazilian carnival?
Commission of Front
Allegories and props
Progress, harmony and joint
Mestre-sala and Porta-Bandeira
Director of Battery
Queen of drums section and related
Ala das Baianas
How a parade functions?
Make a question regarding this topic. Answer it with hypothesis.
Raise more questions whose answers will be part of the argumentation.
Find examples and quotations that confirms your answers.
You are now able to critically analyse and discuss about some topics of Brazilian culture. You have to show that you are now able to leave from the descriptive level to a more analytical discussion.
Anyone else states it? Who? How? What's his point? Can you find statistics and/or examples that sustain your answer?
Show that the path you went through confirms or refuses your hypothesis, in other words, that the arguments you chose prove your hypothesis .
Answer the questions you've raised.
The difference between conclusion and introduction is that the former introduces questions and the later answer them. Both highlight the the main topics of the text.
Through these anthropologists, we analyse and describe the constitution of the Brazilian people, the origins of Samba, and the social meanings of the Brazilian Carnival.
The history of a freely racial miscegenation created what is so called Brazilian people, mixed in flesh and spirit.
Samba is the metaphor of the cultural and racial miscegenation.
Carnival is a ritual (a dramatization, a rite) of social roles inversion. It is multiple.
"Rituals constitutes a privileged domain for manifesting what a society wants to have recognized as perennial or even "eternal", it also emerges as a crucial domain for understanding the ideology and values of a given social formation" (p.15)
How is the Brazilian Carnival like? How it is organized and celebrated? (video samples)
How society is represented through carnival? (Roberto Damatta)
he Carnival of Brazil is a great festival held forty days (or six weeks) before the beginning of Lent. On certain days of Lent, Roman Catholics and some other Christians traditionally abstained from the consumption of meat and poultry, hence the term "carnival," from carnelevare, "to remove (literally, "raise") meat." Carnival has roots in the pagan festival of Saturnalia, which, adapted to Christianity, became a farewell to bad things in a season of religious discipline to practice repentance and prepare for Christ's death and resurrection.
Rhythmatic, participation, and costumes vary from one region of Brazil to another. In the southeastern cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, huge organized parades are led by samba schools. Those official parades are meant to be watched by the public, while minor parades ("blocos") allowing public participation can be found in other cities. The northeastern cities of Salvador, Porto Seguro and Recife have organized groups parading through streets, and public interacts directly with them. This carnival is also influenced by African-Brazilian culture. It's a six-day party where crowds follow the trios elétricos through the city streets, dancing and singing. Also in northeast, Olinda carnival features unique characteristics, part influenced by Venice Carnival mixed with cultural depictions of local folklore.
The typical genres of music of Brazilian carnival are, in Rio de Janeiro (and Southeast Region in general): the samba-enredo, the samba de bloco, the samba de embalo and the marchinha; in Pernambuco and Bahia (and Northeast Region in general) the main genres are: the frevo, the maracatu, the samba-reggae and Axé music.
Carnival is the most famous holiday in Brazil and has become an event of huge proportions. Except the industries, malls and the carnival related workers, the country stops completely for almost a week and festivities are intense, day and night, mainly in coastal cities. The consumption of beer accounts for 80% of annual consumption and tourism receives 70% of annual visitors.
What have hold your attention? What particular topic interested you?
In major cities, the parade of the samba school currently takes about an hour, with some variations according to the rules imposed by the organization of the carnival in the city, where schools generally have less time in groups of children parade . Special Group in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the parade has a maximum time of one hour and twenty minutes, while in São Paulo is the maximum of 1 hour and five minutes. Along the track, are scattered with stop watches to mark the space of time between the exit of the first component of the merger and the arrival of the last component to the dispersion, when it finally closed the gate and the show is officially closed.
Descriptive information source: Wikipedia
Comissao de frente
Mestre-salas e porta-bandeira
Rainha da bateria
Ala das Baianas
Carnaval Drum Queens are essentially muses that parade in a highlighted fashion, in front of every Drum Section within a samba-school in Brazil´s Carnaval. Some historians say the origin of this beauty figure, goes back to the fifties and sixties, but only after the mid-eighties, with Monique Evans at Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel, the post achieved the status it has today. Here all your questions and concerns will be approached, including examples of the glamorous Queen of Carnival Costumes, that so many desire.
The Rainhas de Bateria are at the top of the social status chain (for women) within Brazil´s Carnaval and are responsible for “opening and welcoming” the percussionists of the drums section in every major samba school in Brazil. The post is extremely sought after and sparks lively competition within possible candidates. The Rainhas de Bateria are generally young ( between 18-50 ), and very physical.
They are a result of a racial mixture between indigenous, Europeans (Portuguese, and most recently, Italian, Ucranian, German, Spanish), Africans, Japonese, and Leabanese.
Together result in a people mixed in flesh and soul. The Brazilian culture represents such a mixture.
Samba popularity coincided with the Carnival parade outbreak .
It originates from the Afro-Brazilian culture (religion and martial art). In 1916 when it becomes popular, it starts to be mixed with different styles (from different regions of Brazil, and other nacionalities, such as Jazz), and to be recreated as something unique, typically Brazilian.
Samba, then, the Brazilian soul: a mixture cultural and racial mixture.
What's the Brazilian Culture?
is the manifestation of a mixed people, son of the Land, a people who had to create and recreate their own way of living and expressing themselves. It is manifested in the sameway, such as Samba and Carnival. If on one hand Samba embraces the meaning of a racial mixture, leading to a thought that racism does not exist in the Brazilian culture, on the other hand carnival points to a racial and social hierarqui picturing the life of Brazilian on everyday basis.
Is Brazil a "racial democracy"?
Prof. Telles draws a distinction between vertical and horizontal inequality. The vertical has to do with jobs, money, status, education, etc., while the horizontal is socializing and even marrying across racial lines. Prof. Telles tells us that despite more horizontal equality than in the United States, vertical inequality remains severe. (http://www.amren.com/features/2012/09/is-brazil-a-racial-democracy/)
white immigration --> attempt to whitening Brazil
Freyre --> Racial Democracy
Since early 1910s, carnival