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Change Management

for HR managers

marc vanschoenwinkel

on 31 August 2016

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Transcript of Change Management

Change Management

A journey through the land of the never ending story

reflection on role as a change agent
learn concepts and tools to use in planning and facilitating change
2. Goals
Concepts behind the journey
Tell something about yourself using an animal: show some vulnerability without exaggerating.
Emotions & behaviour/
Marlies Zeeuwen & Marc Vanschoenwinkel
3. Agenda
1. Preparing the Journey
2. Making the Journey
4 phases/regions with:
relevant concepts
how to use them (cases)
how to integrate in a planning of change
4. Preparing the journey
5. Making the journey
good to know about change
tools to prepare for the journey

Good to know: Key elements of a successful change
How to prepare ?
What are the specific steps we have to plan, each time with clear tangible results
Who has to learn what at which moment ?
Learning as a vehicle for change
Lets do something complete different
Who has the power/influence and how can we use this ?
How can we reward an "punish", use HR systems and instruments ?
symbols are visible signs through which the organisation expresses itself: corporate identity, uniforms, (formal and informal) dress code, interior design and architecture, company cars, leadership behaviour, etc.

what are the tangible symbols of the organisation and what do they express?
stories refer to the way the organisation passes on its history. They reflect success, failure, heroes and villains.

stories can turn into myths if they lose touch with reality and become disproportioned.

what stories and myths are present and passed on in the organisation? What do they contain and express?
Myths and Stories
the schematic overview of the organisation (organisation chart) to describe its working arrangements.

it shows who leads departments and how accountability is divided.

how does the organisation chart of the organisation look like? What is typical?

can you recognize the organisation chart in daily practice? In what way?

Organisational Structures
power Structures describe the hierarchy of the organisation; how power is divided and executed.

it does not only reflect the formal power arrangements but also the informal power.

what is typical for the power structures of the organisation? How does it show? What are typical examples?
Power Structures
routines are habits of the organisation related to the task; self-evident standard ways of doing that go without saying.

rituals are habits to celebrate success and failure, joy and sadness.

routines and rituals refer to what the organisation approves and disapproves, rewards and rejects.

what routines and rituals are typical for the organisation?

Routines and Rituals
control systems monitor the performances of the organisation.

they also contain soft systems such the appraisal system.

what are the control systems the organisation uses and what do they measure? How is the output followed-up?

Control Systems
How to prepare: Change compass: analyse, plan and manage
Emotions & behaviour/
Brainfacts Awareness
predicting what is going to happen is one of the core processes of our brain
brain is one big error detection machine in function of our expectations
All information is very quickly scanned by the emotional brain before it goes to the rational brain
When error or threat is detected the limbic systems takes control and uses the energy: flight, fight, freeze
It is not so much reality as the perception of reality that motivates or disturbs people
there is a competition for energy between rational and emotional part, most of the time for most of the people: the emotional part wins !
we mainly process information that matches our expectations
Brainfacts Interest
like someone walking, an organism must maintain stability while it is adjusting to internal and external changes
Emotions & behaviour/

naming and normalizing minimizes error detection
focus on one point can bring order in chaos
what most people constantly are doing: moving towards rewards and moving away from pain and threats.
compared to positive feelings, negative feelings are more easily triggered
The emotional system doesn't know words: it looks for behavior that inspires trust and confidence
loss of status triggers a fundamental visceral reaction: it stimulates the same regions in the brain as when physical pain: proven wrong in a discussion= loss of status
the suppression of negative emotions has negative effects on the one involved but also on those in his neighbourhood.
Brainfacts Testing & learning
good questions programs new ways of thinking, feeling and action
questions that test the consistency of cognitive maps can lead to cognitive dissonance and consequent change
free will is 2/10 of a second
adults are more willingly to learn when they belief that they can use it immediately
the making of new connections is fun, to let go of existing connections cause irritation
Emotions & behaviour/
Brainfacts Adoption
after the age of 7 it is impossible to learn someone something he/she doesn’t want to learn.
focused attention plays a critical role in making physical changes in the brain.
you get more of the things you give attention to, attention wires the brain in a certain direction
Repetition makes familiar
Confidence in the process of natural growth, development,
Offering space, embedding, detach
Denote dynamics/complexity, pattern recognition,
Giving meaning
Creativity, self-organisation
‘Panta rhei’, ‘everything flows’
Bringing interests together
Elicit opinions, taking a standpoint
Win-win solutions, underlying benefits and interests
Negociate, support, coalitions
Power, status, influence, process management
Predetermined goal/result
Roadmap from A to B
Planning & control: monitoring and adjusting
Stability and mastering
Reducing complexity
Behavioural approach: rewarding & punish, lure & stimulate;
Challenge & support
Making work enjoyable, work satisfaction
HR-instruments: rewarding, motivate, job enrichment,
Assessment, career, training, recruitment and selection
Giving something back for provided commitment
Awareness: reflection on (own) functioning, points of view,
Framework extension, change of perspective
Learning climate, learning circles, feedback loops
Coaching, intervision
Organisational development
Learning organisation’, ‘continuing learning’
Good to know: phases of change
Good to know: phases of change and what to do
Principle 1 there is no change without resistance

Principle 2 resistance always contains a (hidden) message

Principle 3 denial of resistance leads to blockages

Principle 4 going along with resistance, not against it.
put ‘Communication’ as a fixed item on the agenda in every meeting

distinguish the purpose of change (what) and the way in which this goal can be achieved (how).

make choices about how the participation of employees is shaped.

pay much attention to the interests that are under pressure as a result of changes in the information you provide.

do not exclude any parties from the communication process.

inform employees about the choices made and the result of change.

Practice if possible on small projects with this interweaving of organizational change and communication.
underestimating the importance of continuation
starting new changes prematurely
turnover among key persons
insufficient recognition and support in the environment
turbulence in the external environment of the organization
Central task: make sure that change lasts

getting rid of old, restraining factors
further building and practicing of new routines
securing change by means of new systems: supporting conditions; anchoring of procedures and systems; increasing chances of survival
solving conflicts, inconsistencies and tensions
working towards lasting improvements
which old patterns have not been cleared yet? Where are there persons still not aware of things?

where are we ready? What is the gain? What have we achieved?

how are the change results being measured?

design a thermostat for setback

what results have already been penetrated in the systems and procedures?

how do we look back on the underlying process? Where are we now and where are we going to?

Culture is the invisible gap between plan and realisation.
Cultural web

The way we follow to achieve set goals. A strategy is long-term and is eventually translated into a short-term action plan.

The distribution of tasks, responsibilities and authority within the organisation. The organisational chart is a widely used visualization of the structure.

Rules, procedures, routines and processes with which the daily functioning is being directed, for example by making use of manuals and routines.

The motivation and the competencies of the people who work for the organisation. The policy for employees including hiring, career opportunities, assessment, monitoring, etc.

The way management - at all levels - is leading the organisation. Examples of different styles: directive or participative, risk-taking or risk averse when making decisions, aimed at people or resources, etc.

The common values and the resulting ways of doing things that give the organisation it's own identity, for example values like: simplicity, humility, strength, cost consciousness, solidarity, honesty, responsibility, innovation, progressiveness.
What to change: Organisational elements and activities (services, quality, products, planning...)
Individual resistance
increase of problem awareness
increase of participation
reduction of uncertainty
increase of information and communication
increase of the revenues
How to change: colours of change: different paradigms !
1. Introduction
The invisible gap between a plan and realisation is.... CULTURE
Enhanced Customer Experience IKEA Netherlands
• To make sense of the chaos around us we use frames to structure it; these frames help us to make the world understandable and purposeful. A set of frames is called a mental model, paradigm or mind-set.

• A paradigm is a complex whole of (partly unconscious) assumptions, beliefs, reasons and images to define reality without saying.

• Organisations do the same; they make use of a paradigm to make their activities understandable and meaningful.

The Cultural Web
Creating awareness
Individual level:

Co-workers will take in the information according to their own situation
Meet individuals face-to-face
Organize walk-in sessions
State the vision- over and over again
Show the way forward
Create credibility
Time consuming to make everyone aware, be patient

Organisational level:

Paint the broad picture in a credible way and include the reasons behind, the WHY
Give facts, figures and examples
Draw out the consequences of not changing
Don’t undervalue the past
State the vision- over and over again
Show the way forward
Create credibility
Group level:

Intitiate meetings for reflection and discussions in groups
Refer to their own experiences and observations
Translate the main message into concrete output goals
Be clear about the roadmap and the degree of influence
If relevant: make a forcefield analysis together with a specific group
State the vision- over and over again
Show the way forward
Create credibility
Cognitive dissonance

is the state of holding two or more conflicting cognitions simultaneously.
(e.g., ideas, beliefs, values, emotional reactions)

In a state of dissonance, people may sometimes feel surprise, dread, guilt, anger, or embarrassment.
Cognitive dissonance theory warns that people have a bias to seek consonance among their cognitions.

According to Festinger, we engage in a process he termed "dissonance reduction", which he said could be achieved in one of three ways:

lowering the importance of one of the discordant factors,
adding consonant elements
changing one of the dissonant factors
Source: based on the coulours of change, Léon de Caluwé and ESH model, Gert Wijnen & Rudy Kor
source: Philip Vandendriessche
source: Jerry Johnson
Source: T. Leary
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