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Evolution of the Pencil
Transcript of Evolution of the Pencil
Why are pencils yellow: The true story behind the yellow pencil. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pencils.com/blog/why-are-pencils-yellow/
Who invented the pencil?. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/UpxnsT
History of pens & writing instruments. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blpen.htm
Pencil. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Pencil.html First Invented Evolution of the Pencil The ancient Romans used a metal rod called a stylus.
In 1564, graphite became popular in England. Later on, the graphite was inserted into wood and then bound with string or sheepskin. At first eastern red cedar wood was used, but then an alternative wood was crucial. Manufacturers then turned to incense cedar. Some private pencil makers used juniper wood. Mass Production of the Pencil In 1560, the Bernacotti's split hollowed wood in half. They inserted graphite and then glued the halves back together.
Then, in 1795, Nicolas Conte invented a more efficient process. He fired clay and graphite and inserted the mixture into a wooden case. Lead was glued into the slot and wood was used to fill in the extra spaces.
After that, in Lotharvon Faber created a machine that precisely cut and grooved pencil wood. He also invented a method in which he inserts graphite paste into rods of equal thickness. The First Mechanical Pencil In the 1880's there was a demand for a non-sharpening pencil. The first one introduced had a metal/plastic casing. The lead was in a spiral. The lead was held up by a metal rod. When the cap of the pencil is twisted, the lead moves down the spiral and the lead is forced to the point of the pencil. Attaching the Eraser At first, breadcrumbs were used to erase pencil marks on paper. Then, in 1839, a man named Charles Goodyear patented the process in which he modifies rubber in order to allow it to erase pencil marks.
Then in 1858, Hyman Lipman attached the rubber to the end of a pencil. Facts Astronauts use pencils in space because in order for pens to work properly, gravity needs to be present.
Pencils are yellow because many centuries ago, the most pristine graphite available was located in China. In Chinese culture yellow was a symbol of royalty and respect.
The more graphite there is in a pencil, the darker and softer the pencil is considered to be. Brianna McColgan
Stinson P.4 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/V7iIX1
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/ZVh1IE
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/W6bNs3
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/W6bNIE
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/13BlBAG