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Islam Vocabulary

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by

Nicholas Tom

on 9 October 2013

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Transcript of Islam Vocabulary

Islam Vocabulary
Wet area
In the desert
Has water
Oasis
Key People
Places
Lived in one place
Lived in a house
Opposite of nomadic
Sedentary
Used camels
Moved from place to place with seasons
Tribes
Herded animals
Lived in tents
Nomad - Nomadic
Market or Bazaar
Nomads trade
Merchants use caravans
Merchants sell different goods
Location brings lots of trade
Souk
Religion
Founder Muhammad
Monotheistic
Means submit to God
Followers are Muslim
Holy book Qur'an
Islam
Followers of Islam
Believe Muhammad kept receiving messages
Believe in Muhammad's teachings
Muslim
Islam's holy book
Includes all messages from Muhammad
Very important to Muslims
Qur'an
A place to worship
For worshiping saint(s) or god(s)
People pilgrimage to shrines
Shrine
Journey to a sacred place
People pilgrimage yearly
One main pilgrimage is Kaaba
Pilgrimage
A place for Muslim worship
First in 622
First in Muhammad's house
Mosque
Religion
Monotheistic
Holy book Torah
Followers called Jewish
Founded 2000BC
Founded southwest Asia
Judaism
Religion
Monotheistic
Holy book Bible
Followers called Christians
Founded 1BC
Founded southwest Asia
Christianity
Subject in Qur’an
Struggle/effort to obey God
Struggle/defend Muslim community
Convert people to Islam
Also translated- “Holy War”
Jihad
Southwest corner of Asia
Mostly desert
Hot and dry
At the crossroads of Asia, Europe, and Africa
Arabian Peninsula
Shrine
Very important
People pilgrimage to Kaaba yearly
In Mecca
House of worship
Believed Abraham built
Kaaba
Muhammad's Muslim example of duties
Shows expected life for Muslims
Important Muslim writing
Sunnah
Islamic law
law based on Islamic sources
Rewards good behavior
punishes crimes
Shariah
Highest leader of Islam
Arabic- successor
have to follow prophet's exapmple
Caliph
Branch of Muslims
Believe Muhammad's family must be caliph
Split mid-600s
Shia
Branch of Muslims
Believe caliphs could be anybody
Caliph must be good Muslims
Caliph must be strong leaders
Split mid-600
Sunni
An Ottoman ruler
Issued laws based on Shariah
Made all important descsions
Sultan
Persian title of king
Shah
Decorative writing
Transformed into art form
Used to make Qur'an art
Used on several different objects
Calligraphy
Narrow tower
Calls Muslims for prayer
Part of some mosques
Minaret
A textbook on algebra, math
Combine Greek and Indian math
Foundation of modern algebra
Number system called "Arabic" numerals
Founded by al-Khwarizmi
Al-jabr
Muhammad
Founder of Islam
Born in 570
Died in 632
Abu Bakr
One of Muhammad's first converts
First Caliph
Political/military leader
Not religious leader
Conquered many lands outside Arabia
Died 634
Fatimah
She was born early 600s
Loyal Muhammad's daughter
Married Ali
Ali origin of split Islam
Died 633
Family
Many early caliphs
Moved capital Medina - Damascus
Expanded in central Asia
Expanded in northern India
Conquered North Africa
Gained control of trade
Umayyads
Native North Africans
Conquered part of Europe
Fought Muslims late 600s
Converted to Islam
Began helping Muslims
Conqured Spain
Berbers
Dynasty
Came to power 750
Reorganized government for easier rule
Abbasids
Mehmed II
Sultan that built places
Tried to conquer Constantinople
Conquered Byzantine Empire
Made Constantinople capital
Renamed Constantinople Istanbul
Born 1432
Died 1481
Repaired damage caused by fighting
Muslim Turkish warriors
Ruled part North Africa
Ruled part of Arabia
Ruled part of Europe
Trained Christian boys to fight (Jannisaries)
Had gunpowder
Ottomans
Suleyman I
Sultan
Rule from 1520 - 1566
Reached Ottoman's height
Reached Ottoman's culural height
Group of Persian Muslims
Conflict with Ottomans/Other Muslims
Empire begins 1501
Made Shiism a religion (Shia)
Blend Persian/Muslim traditions
Safavid
Turkish Muslims from central Asia
Established 1526
Founder Babur
Controlled most of India
Conflict of culture ends empire
Mughals
Akbar
Ruled Mughal Empire in 1526
Conquered many lands
Made government stronger
Began tolerant religion policy
Ibn Battutah
Geographer
Traveled to Africa and India
Also traveled to China
Also traveled to Spain
Helped make more accurate maps
Indian religion
Polytheistic
Hindu
Religious group
Formed from Hinduism
Pesecuted by Akbar (Ottomans)
Sikh
Hussein
Grandson of Muhammad
Carrier of Shia Muslim branch
Killed by Sunni
City in Arabian Peninsula
Birthplace of Muhammad
Rich because of caravan trade
Muslims face Mecca when praying
Muslims should pilgrimage once
Mecca
City in Arabian Peninsula
North of Mecca
Muhammad's arrival is year 1 ( to Muslims)
Medina
City in current Israel
Muslims/Christians fought for
Muslims used to face when praying
Jerusalem
Umayyads capital
City in Arabian Peninsula
Damascus
Capital Islamic Empire 762
Major trade center
Located near land/water
Center of culture
Support science/arts
Farming important
City in Arabian Peninsula
Baghdad
In current Spain
Capital Islamic Empire 756
Center of learning
Center of Jewish culture
Cordoba
1453 Ottoman capital
Renamed Istanbul
Located in modern Turkey
Constantinople
Tomb
Built by Shah Jahan
Located in Agra, India
Taj Mahal
Part of Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire centered in Persia
Modern Iran
Persia
The End
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