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Feminist Movement 1960s-1970s
Transcript of Feminist Movement 1960s-1970s
However, after the war ended, women were not as welcome in the workplace. By the 1960s with the combined genders in the workforce, women became increasingly dissatisfied with society's negative perception of women continuing their jobs in the workplace.
As a result, women began to organize themselves to start collective groups in order to exert political pressure to change the status quo. Feminism- The belief that men and women should be equal politically, economically and socially.
Nineteenth Amendment- Guaranteed women's voting rights in 1920.
Two important groups:
League of Women's Voters- Promoted Laws to protect women and children such as limiting hours they worked.
The National Women's Party- Believed it reinforced workplace discrimination. In 1960, advertisements such as newspaper ads and magazines separated jobs by gender, banks denied them credit and compared to men, women were payed much less for the same work done.
Women gained a better understanding of their inequality in society from their own experiences in the civil rights and antiwar movement. The President's Commission on the Status of Women- Ran by President Kennedy and Eleanor Roosevelt, this force had the ability to help create networks of feminine activities.
Equal Pay Act- In 1963, women won the passage of this which outlawed paying men more than women for the same job.
Civil Rights Act- In 1964, it was designed to fight racial bias. Title VII outlawed job discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion and gender. Betty Friedan- Wrote famous book "The Feminine Mystique " in 1963 which helped women release their anger and sadness toward inequality.
National Organization for Women- In 1966, Betty Friedan and 300 other women and men demanded greater educational opportunities for women.
Title IX- prohibited federally funded schools from discriminating against girls and young women in nearly all aspects of its operations, from admissions to athletics. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the women's movements fought to enforce the previous acts listed to repeal laws for legislation against gender discrimination in employment , housing and education.
The movements experienced high achievement in success as well as tremendous amounts of failure. In 1973, women's main goal was to obtain the right to regulate abortion. Because of the statutory law, abortion was prohibited except to save the life of a mother. Women who chose to have abortions faced criminal prosecution.
Roe Vs. Wade- the Supreme Court ruled that the state governments could not regulate abortion during the first three months of pregnancy.The second three months of pregnancy, states could regulate abortions on the basis of the health of the mother. In the final three months, states could ban abortion in the cases of medical emergency. By 1960 after World War II, women made up almost 40% of the nation's workforce. Unfortunately, people continued to believe that the only place for a woman was the kitchen. Marvi Samtani
Period 3 Eve Even though the ERA failed, the women's movements created a difference for many women today. Since the end of World War II, women have made steady progress towards gender equality in the workplace, although they keep running up against the glass ceiling and certainly do not have parity of pay for the same jobs as men. Although full equality between the two genders has not yet become the norm in the United States as of yet, women have certainly made great strides towards success in becoming more independent and equal to men. In 1972, Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment to protect women against discrimination. This amendment had negative aspects such as the possibility to women would be subjected to the military draft. Because of this, Phyllis Schlafly organized the Stop-ERA campaign. The ERA failed in 1982.