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History Survey - Medieval - Baroque

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John Marino

on 13 October 2014

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Transcript of History Survey - Medieval - Baroque

It could have been created since the beginning of mankind, but where? Nobody
Where did music come from?
Where did it all begin?
Western Europe
Time Periods
Music on “papyrus” of about the year 200 BCE
Ancient Greek Music Notation
Images of music history that went through time
Music in

(400 C.E. – 1400 C.E - roughly)
The Church was the Law
Plainchant: Mass for Christmas - Agnus Dei
Bernart de Ventadorn (c. 1135-1194)
"The Black Death"
The Bubonic Plague
began in 1348
This experience changed the entire society across
Western Europe, which would then become the ...
The plague slowly vanished as people kept away
from anyone or anything that was infected.
RENAISSANCE PERIOD (c. 1400– 1600)
As the society of the time changed drastically, people were becoming more educated. As a result, some people succeeded quite well financially and some became quite powerful.
Rich and more powerful people would become "patrons" to support the arts.
There were two individuals who became particularly well-known for their accomplishments during the Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Medici Family, the Sforza Family and Cesare Borgia, and later King Francis I of France
First - the Medici Family and Pope Julius II
Second - Pope Leo of the Roman Catholic Church
Da Vinci's "Mona Lisa"
Michelangelo's "Last Judgement"
in the Sistine Chapel
Other important people
in the Renaissance?
William Shakespeare
Christofo Colombo
Johannes Guthenberg
Guthenberg invented the printing press
Music in the Renaissance
Sculptor Luca della Robbia
Renaissance Art
<young boys>
Middle Ages
<elderly men>
Pier Luigi Palestrina (1526 –1594)

We will now listen to a new "style" of music
- always with Latin Text
- usually "Sacred"
- "vocal" composition
- choir (ensemble)
Motet - Sicut cervus
4 voices
- There are several voices (ensemble)
- They are not singing at the same time
- Young boys are singing (high voices)
- Sacred
- Vocal
We will listen to a new style of music

"The Madgrigal"
Luca Marenzio (1553-1599)
- vocal & secular composition
- one or more voices
- always in the vernacular
What's different?
- sometimes accompanied by the
recorder or the lute
- poems about life, beauty, or emotions
Magrigal_ "Solo e pensoso"
Thomas Weelkes (1576 - 1623)
Listen to another "Madrigal" that glorifies Queen Elizabeth I of England
6 different voices
"As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending"
Instrumental music also became popular because people (nobility) liked to dance.
Popular dances:
- pavane (slow)
- galliard (fast)
Tielman Susato (c. 1510 – 1570)
Let's listen to this dance

What can you tell me about this music?
How do you feel about it?
So, tell me about this music?
- fast
- fun and happy music
the "recorder" was popular
- instrumental music became increasingly
popular for court festivals and special occasions
- dance music was favoured by the royalty and
nobility for entertainment.
- Hence, it was "secular"
This music especially influenced future composers, which will be the next time period presented.
Renaissance "Lute"
Renaissance "Recorders"
Queen Elisabeth I playing the Lute
Welcome to a new journey of Music History
With your note-sheet, I will guide your note-taking.
Your responsibility is to listen (your teacher and the music), watch the screen, take notes and enjoy the lesson during the next 3 classes.
During your history lesson, you will be given many pictures and music to listen.
Your responsibility is to remember and recognize if the music of the time period is:
1. Vocal
2. Instrumental
3. Vocal & Instrumental
a. Sacred (the Pope, serious, to worship God)
b. Secular (nobility, amusement, to entertain)
Please, for the sake of learning, remain quiet during the listening.
Your next task:
Try to remember the important elements that connect with the music of the time. (Elements = Architecture, paintings, fashion and the social changes)
Here we go!!
They all began like merchants and made more and more money.
With their power and money, they could also make other people wealthy enough to have them live quite comfortably.
i. Solo
ii. Ensemble
Solo or Ensemble?

Sacred or Secular?

Vocal or Instrumental?

What language?
Solo or Ensemble?

Sacred or Secular?

Vocal or Instrumental?

Language - Old French
Known for their paintings, sculptors, architecture, engineering, and more. Basically, they were ahead of their time.
The Baroque Period (1600 - 1750)
Baroque architecture
Baroque Art
Baroque Fashion
J. S. Bach's Handwritten composition
Nicolas de Largillière
A Young Man with a Wig
Nicolas Boileau
Baroque Music was primarily for:

1. The Opera House
2. The courts of Nobility
3. The Church
Poetry and drama was revived from the Ancient Greeks
Scholars (philosophers, artists, humanists) wanted to revive this culture so music would become more dramatic.
So, they wanted trained singers NOT to speak their dialogue, but to sing their dialogue.
Hence, the "recitative" (speech-like singing) was created and "OPERA" would be discovered.
Please listen now to an Early Baroque


by Monteverdi
You'll also realize that music during the Baroque is very "strict" and "proper".
* very little "dynamic" changes
* "tempo" is steady throughout (most of the time)
Church (sacred) music was also very important during this time. For example, San Marco in Venice, supported the music directors as their
Church music again would remain very sacred. Church music was often composed for a singer(s) - and what instrument?
Let's listen to Church music in the Baroque period.
Giovanni Gabrieli
What's different? What instrument do you hear?
With time during the Baroque period, many composers learned from their masters and wrote tons of music. However, the two most important composers towards the Late Baroque are: Anyone?
J.S. Bach
G.F. Handel
Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D minor
Händel - Messiah - Hallelujah Chorus
Music for Nobility / Royalty in the Baroque Period
After the popular "recorder" and the "lute" during the Renaissance ...
The Harpsichord
Only nobility can afford these instruments. They would hire their music teachers and learn how to play.
Nobility would make nice preparations to entertain (showoff) their guests and hire their favourite composers and musicians.
Jean-Philippe Rameau, from France, wrote many compositions for the HARPSICHORD. Let's watch and listen this video.
Rameau - "Les Cyclopes"
The "Re-Birth" of what?? What was re-born?
The Renaissance period particularly signifies an increased "patronage" of music. What is patronage?
= Patron
Happy or Sad?
Vocal or Instrumental?
Sacred or Secular?
Solo or Ensemble?
Homer the poet
... which instrument became popular in the Baroque?
And now, to our next time period.
Which is? Anyone?
This period was a time of experimentation.
This period saw the development of opera and instrumental music.
When they would perform for their patrons, they would include themes of "chivalry" and "courtly love" in their songs.
The Medici Family
Leonardo Da Vinci & Michelangelo
were both under their patronage.
So, what was different?
Can you recognize the "recitative"? Who can explain?
Monteverdi - "Signor, deh non partire"
Can anyone tell me anything about this next time period?
Full transcript