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Age of Johnson
Transcript of Age of Johnson
+ Over crowding led to poor living conditions
Protesting that Catholics will not have to swear oath when joining British army.
+Land was the main source of wealth. Social, Religious and Cultural Issues Samuel Johnson Colonialism:
+Captured Canada and India during the seven year war.
+ The war lasted from 1754-1763. + Sir Robert Walpole was elected as Prime Minister during the reign of King George I and King George II. +King George III was king of Great Britain and Ireland for much of the Age of Johnson, 1760-1801. + The two Parties:
Whigs- supported the rich and trade, less interference by the king
Tories- loyalists to tradition and the king + Most people were Protestant.
+Intolerance within Church of England
+ Wesley started a Methodist movement, encouraging people to have a personal relationship with God.
+ Religion was decreasing in influence.
+Clergy used influence to ordain aristocracy.
+Spread in the belief that man was his own judge Class Structure:
+ People were more able to climb up the social ladder
+ From rich to poorest were the Landowners, Merchants, Craftsmen and Laborers.
+ Decline in religious conformity +Born September 18,1709 in Lichfield, Staffordshire
+ He got sick as a child and was partly blind and deaf in one ear. As a result of the pity received he was incredibly independent.
+ Moved to Worcestershire in 1725 where his uncle taught him about the classics.
+ His father's debt forced him to work as a book binder. He read a lot. + Between 1730 and 1745 Samuel Began showing signs of Turrets Syndrome.
+He had to drop out of Oxford and was horribly depressed.
+ He started his own school of three people, it failed.
+ He wrote works like Irene and Life of Mr. Richard Savage. +In 1755 he finished The Dictionary of the English Language. It took nine years to complete.
+ His wife, Elizabeth, died before it was finished. + In his time he wrote poems and essays for magazines, a new edition of Shakespeare, a dictionary, and a series of volumes on English poets.
+He died on December 13, 1784 of a stroke. Thomas Gray + Born 1716
+ Was the only surviving child born to his parents, of 12, to live past infancy.
+His father was abusive.
+ When his mother left his father Thomas lived with her. +In college, at Cambridge, he had three good friends. They prided themselves on their intelligence, love of studies and dislike for Athletics. Sonnet on the Death of Mr Richard West
In vain to me the smiling mornings shine,
And redd'ning Phoebus lifts his golden fire:
The birds in vain their amorous descant join;
Or cheerful fields resume their green attire:
These ears, alas! for other notes repine,
A different object do these eyes require:
My lonely anguish melts no heart but mine;
And in my breast the imperfect joys expire.
Yet morning smiles the busy race to cheer,
And new-born pleasure brings to happier men:
The fields to all their wonted tribute bear;
To warm their little loves the birds complain:
I fruitless mourn to him that cannot hear,
And weep the more, because I weep in vain. From Boethius
O Thou! whose power o'er moving worlds presides,
Whose voice created, and whose wisdom guides,
On darkling man in pure effulgence shine,
And cheer the clouded mind with light divine.
'Tis thine alone to calm the pious breast
With silent confidence and holy rest;
From thee, great God! we spring; to thee we bend;
Path, motive, guide, original, and end.
Samuel Johnson + Simple language
+ Rhyme was used commonly in poems
+Ideas complete by the end of the line + Some Rhyme is used,
(attire, require, expire, fire)
+ Personal to the author (his feelings on the death of his friend)
+ Common language, for the times, used + One of those friends, Richard West, died in 1742.
It brought Gray much sadness, but also inspiration in his writing. + The Writing was on reason and
Style was intellectual and the Format was colloquial, straight forward. + Civilizations began
to overthrow the
+The public pushed reason aside and embraced ideals rather than harsh realities. The Fall Social Problems Religion Cultural Straying away from heroic couplet to closed couplet
Return to old themes
Greek and Roman mythology
Didactic Formats Poetry Prose Logical thought