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American Colonial Period

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Kathrine Mikaela Pineda

on 18 June 2017

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Transcript of American Colonial Period

Major Art Movements
The independence of the Philippines gained after the revolution was cut short with the establishment of the American colonial government. Bound by the Treaty of Paris 1898, Spain
"surrendered"
the Philippines to the US. Beginning with the institution of government and education systems, the new colonial govt took charge of initiating the natives into the American way of life, creating a lasting influence on Filipino culture.
A Modern Filipina
Lino Castillejo & Jesus Araullo
Unlike the Spanish, the Americans zealously taught their language through an efficient public school system. In less than a decade, Filipino playwrights began to write plays in English.
Architecture
Neoclassic architecture may incorporate decorative sculptural elements hosed in a pediment, as exemplified by the National Art Gallery.
Tomas Mapua, Juan Arellano, Andres Luna de San Pedro, and Antonio Toledo
were the Filipino architects who designed buildings during the period. They received training in
US or in Europe.
Arts
The demand for artists who could do illustrations in textbooks or graphic design for product labels thus emerged. The inclination toward genre, still life, and portrait paintings persisted. Landscapes on the other hand, became cherished as travel souvenirs, especially those that captured the exotic qualities of Philippine terrain.
Changes Brought about by American Colonization
Sedition Law
banned Filipino playwrights from writing, printing and publication of materials advocating Philippine independence, and engaging in activities.
AMERICAN Colonial Period
(1898-1940)
to the Postwar Republic
(1946-1969)

Juan Abad

Tanikalang Guinto, 1902
banned on May 10, 1903 after performance in Batangas and was fined $2,000.
Aurelio Tolentino
Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas, 1903
He was arrested 9 times and sentenced to life imprisonment. His sentence was later on reduced to 15 years. The play delved on intense love of country exposing foreign economic control, and a call for armed struggle.
Jose Matapang Cruz
Hindi Ako Patay, 1903

The red sun on the Katipunan flag that rose behind the stage caused the riot inside the theater. Cruz was arrested and later imprisoned, which he served in full.
These plays echoed not only the national sentiments but also served as medium for political protest, openly attacking Americans. Known as
drama simbolico,
these one-act plays came to represent a deep and profound yearning for freedom.
The first Filipino play written in English.
Vaudeville
which
originated in France, was another form of theater which the Americans introduced that became popular in the Philippines during the 1920s.
This motley collection of slapstick, songs, dances, acrobatics,comedy skits, chorus girls, magic arts, and stand-up comic acts would be known locally as
bodabil.
Some performances also conveyed hidden messages for guerillas, a clever vehicle for information dissemination through live entertainment. After the war, bodabil performances deteriorated into vulgar shows and soon died away, to be replaced by the popularity of film and later, television.
In the beginning of the 20th century, a new urban pattern that responded the secular goals of education, health and governance was imposed. The architect and urban planner
Daniel Burnham
was commissioned by the American govt to design Manila & Baguio while Architect
William Parsons
implemented the Burnham Plan.
Inspired by the
City Beautiful Movement
introduced in 1893 at the Chicago World Fair, the new urban design employed Neoclassic architecture to make the city attractive by making its buildings impressive & places more inviting.
In 1909, a year after the establishment of the University of the Philippines, its school of Fine Arts was opened. It also offered a course on commercial design to fulfill the aforementioned demand.
fabian dela rosa
was known for his naturalist paintings characterized by restraint and formality in brushwork, choice of somber colors, and subject matter, as seen in the works
Planting Rice
, 1921 and

El Kundiman
,
1930.
Fernando Amorsolo
was known for his romantic paintings that captured the warm glow of the Philippine sunlight. Amorsolo had produced numerous portraits of prominent individuals; genre scenes highlighting the beauty of the
dalagang Filipina
, idyllic landscapes; and historical paintings.
He was also a graphic artist who rendered drawings for the textbooks series
The Philippine Readers
and illustrations for the newspaper
The Independent.
guillermo estrella-tolentino
He was Amorsolo's counterpart in sculpture. He studied fine Arts in Rome and was influenced by its classical tradition. He is credited for
Oblation 1935
of the UP and the
Bonifacio Monument, 1933
in Caloocan.
Buildings in Manila that exemplify Neoclassic architecture include the
Post Office and the Legislative Building
(now the National Art Gallery).
For some time, the
academic
tradition of painting and sculpture in the manner of Amorsolo and Tolentino prevailed in the art scene.
Victorio Edades
He studied arts in US, where its modern art movement profoundly influenced him. His homecoming exhibition in 1928 at the
Philippine Columbian Club
unveiled paintings which departed from the consecutive style of Amorsolo.
The Builders, 1928
showed distorted figures of toiling workers using dull colors; a shift in the treatment of form and subject matter. This sparked as a debate between artists espousing the consecutive idiom, the camp headed by Tolentino and that of Edades.
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