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Sci 8- Unit 5- Topics 1-2
Transcript of Sci 8- Unit 5- Topics 1-2
A World of Water Topic 2-
Earth's Frozen Water Climate and weather are determined by it. Living systems need water to survive. Ecosystems depend on it. The land is changed by it. Industry uses large amounts of it. Our 'blue planet' - as viewed from space - is unique among the planets in our solar system, because 74% of its surface is covered by water. However most of the water on the Earth (about 97%) is saltwater How Do You Depend On Water? p. 364 p. 366 Human body cells need water to function. All organisms need water to survive and all organisms have varying amounts of water in their mass humans 65%, apples 84% and watermelon 98%. what water source are these? Fresh or salt water? The water in your body does not stay constant. You lose water (sweat and elimination of wastes) and you gain water – almost 2.5L per day. Water is vital for survival of all living things. remember the water cycle? What's in it? what are all the parts called? P. 368 The Major Uses Of Water Agriculture ( irrigation ) 73% Industry (solvent, washing) 22% Domestic 5% The Distribution of Water On Earth (Water quantity – the amount of water) READ PAGE 372 Water Enough For All Water quality – the characteristics that make water suitable or unsuitable for different use. Brazil 18%, Canada 9%, China 9%, and United States 8% hold nearly half of the Earth’s
renewable supply of freshwater. Managing Our Water Resource You will learn more about watersheds in Canada and Alberta in Topic 2 and 3. Management of our water resources means managing our water sheds by protecting them. By balancing the water needs of people, industries, wildlife and the environment. you need to know the difference between water QUANTITY and water QUALITY! P. 373 Are you ready to learn?! What is a Glacier? Large bodies of moving mass of ice and snow are called glaciers. An ‘ Ice Cap ’ is a glacier that forms on an extensive area of relatively level land that flows out from its source.
An ’ icefield ‘ is an upland area of ice that feeds two or more glaciers. (The Columbia Icefield, in the Rocky Mountains,
feeds 6 glaciers, is the source of three of Canada’s major rivers and replenishes three different oceans.) How Do Glaciers Form? All glaciers begin as snowflakes. These snowflakes accumulate, becoming grains, ice crystals and the weight of the snow creates pressure that gradually changes the ice crystals into glacial ice. Valley Glacier Glaciers form high in the mountains and move through valleys between mountain peaks. These are
called valley glaciers. Continental Glacier Those covering large areas of land are called continental glaciers or icecaps. Continental glaciers
cover Antarctica and Greenland. To go Glacier Hunting! we spotted one...
they are easy to track...
they move very slowly... Up close, they are covered in dirt and sand at the front... If you get too close,
the glacier will throw rocks at you... we had to go around it,
and climb on from the side... What a View did we mention that it was 16 degrees only a few hundred meters away from the glacier? so we hiked... and hiked... we put on our fancy ice shoes (with metal spikes) ...and we were ready to go! ...go into an
ice staircase.... we walked very carefully, and tested the ice in front of us... when it got too steep, we make our own steps... the sun came out... QUICK! ice climber pose! walking on packed snow is hard... sorry for the bad pun when the sun came out, everything got slick and the ice got slippery there was plenty of ways to fall through the ice if you weren't paying attention all in all, it was pretty cool.
There is a lot to see in, on,
and around a glacier. Where a glacier flows over a steep cliff and breaks up, an icefall results.
A crevasse is a fissure, or crack, in the ice. Glacial Features The shapes that develop in flowing ice are unique. In colder climates, little melting occurs
(this is called an advancing glacier).
If the climate is warmer, the glacier melts faster than it grows
These glaciers are called retreating glaciers. Glacial Movement The movement of glaciers depends on the climate. and the glacier continues to grow or move forward and leaves the rocks, soil and large boulders it once contained. Icebergs are large chunks of ice that break loose, or calve, from continental glaciers as the glaciers flow into the ocean. These chunks are visible as they move through the ocean, melting faster below the surface than above. How Glaciers Shape The Land As glaciers advance or retreat, they create specific glacial features across the landscape. Evidence of Valley Glaciers look up the meanings of these glacial terms, add them to your notes... cirques arête horn till meltwater millwell striations moraine use pages. 380-384 vid on Calving- 22 secs During this time glaciers covered approx. 28% of the Earth’s surface. In the last Ice Age, Canada was completely covered by a continental glacier. Ice Ages The Earth has had 7 major Ice Ages over the last several million years. At the peak of the Ice Age the average temperatures around the world were 5oC colder than they are now. Please read and write down factors that may contribute to the start of ice ages. Greenhouse Effect is... Global Warming is... please write down a minimum of 5 usages let's take a trip to New Zealand on the West Coast
of the South Island Intro to Glaciers:
a personal story 'twas a beautiful morning...