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Copy of AP Human Geography -The Year In Review

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Transcript of Copy of AP Human Geography -The Year In Review

Following are the world's language families:
Austro-Asiatic Geography - Its Nature and Perspectives UNIT 1 Distorions Mercator Projection shows true direction, but distorts size of area.
Gall-Peters Projection keeps landmasses in equal area, while the shapes are distorted.
The Miller Cylindrical Projection shows familiar shapes but has smaller polar exaggeration.
Mollweide Projection is compressed vertically and stretched horizontally.
The Goode,s Homolosine Equal-area Projection cannot easily show the entire world on a map and distorsts the size and shape of landmasses, but it is an effective navigational tool.
The Sinusoidal Equal-area Projection preserves distances along the horizontals but suffers from poor legibility.
Lastly, the Robinson Projection allows sizes of the landmasses in the north and south to have correct size, but causes the others to seem smaller than they really are. Cartography is the science of map-making. Throughout this process, geographers use project to transfer the globe to a flat piece of paper. When projection occurs, there is and always will be, distortion. This includes a change in shape, size, relative size, and direction. To the right are some common examples of maps and the distortion that occurs when they are projected. Key Vocabulary place: a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
region: an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
scale: the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as whole
space: refers to the physical gap or interval between two objects
connections: relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
culture: the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people Human geography is the study of where and why human activities are located where they are.
Physical geography focuses on the natural environment itself. Key Map-Makers:
- Aristotle
- Eratosthenes
- Ptomely
- Iridisi
- George Perkins Marsh
- Carl Sauer Absolute and Relative Location Absolute location is the exact location of a place on a mathematical grid of the earth. You can find this by using the two types of imaginary arcs: meridians and parallels. The vertical lines measure longitude and the horizontal lines measure latitude.

Some factors that geographers may use to determine absolute location include:
- equator (0° latitude)
- prime meridian (0° longitude)
- International Date Line (divides the world from pole to pole through the Pacific Ocean Relative locations are spots relative to other human and physical features on the landscape. It is important to think about this because it defines a place in terms of how central or isolated the location is to other places.

Some factors that geographers may use to determine the relative location of a place include:
- place name (name of a place; toponym: the name given to a place on earth)
- site (the physical characteristics of a place)
- situation (the location of a place relative to other places) Regions A region is an area in which spacial regularities exist. Regionalization is the organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas. There are three types of regions: formal, functional, and perceptual regions.
- Formal regions: Also known as uniform regions or homogeneous regions, this is an area that has striking similarities in terms of one or a few physical or cultural features. Examples may include, but are to limited to -- government units, certain areas for growing a specific crop, and dominant voting areas.
- Functional regions: Also called a nodal region, a functional region is an area focused around a node or particular point. Examples of a functional region may be -- the reception area of a TV station, the circulation are of a newspaper, and the trade area of a department store.
- Perceptual regions: Also known as vernacular regions, this is a place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity. It is the way people see an area. An example of a perceptual region is the way people refer to the "South" in the U.S. It is perceived differently - with special environmental, social, and economic features of its own. GIS - Geographic Information System
A GIS is a computer system that is used to capture, store, analyze, and display data. It measures the position of an object on earth and stores this information in a computer along with countless other specific measurements.

GPS - Global Positioning System
A GPS uses a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers to determine precise location. Cultural Ecology: cultural ecology: the geographic study of human-environment relationships
environmental determinism: the physical environment causes social development (human does not affect the environment, but rather, the environment affects human)
possibilism: the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment
resources: substances that are useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and socially acceptable to use Physical processes that affect the relationship between humans and the environment: climate, vegetation, soil, and land forms. Modifications to the environment: the Netherlands (polder- a piece of land that is created by draining water from an area) and South Florida (insensitive modification of the Everglades). The Netherlands The Everglades Density density: the frequency with which something occurs in space
arithmetic density: the total number of objects in an area
physiological density: the number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture
agricultural density: the number of farmers per unit of farmland Distribution:
the arrangement of a feature in space concentration: the extent of a feature's spread over space pattern: the geometric arrangement of objects in space Diffusion:
the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time relocation diffusion: the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another hearth: the place from which an innovation originates expansion diffusion: the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process hierarchical diffusion: the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to another persons or places contagious diffusion: the rapid, widespread diffusion of characteristic throughout a population stimulus diffusion: the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse UNIT 2 Population There are four main population clusters in the world. Nearly 1/4 of the world's population lives in East Asia. This includes China (the world's most populous country), the islands of Japan, the Korean peninsula, and the island of Taiwan. Another 1/4 of the world's population lives in South Asia. This includes India (the world's second most populous country), Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the island of Sri Lanka. Next comes Europe (and a small portion of Russia), that inhabits around 1/9 of the world's population. Yet another cluster falls in Asia - Southeast Asia to be exact. Mainly a series of islands, this cluster includes Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Papua New Guinea, and the Phillipines. ecumene: the portion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement There are places on earth that people do not like to live. These places include dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, and high lands. crude birth rate (CBR): the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people in the society
crude death rate (CDR): the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
natural increase rate (NIR): the percentage by which a population grows in a year
doubling time: the number of years needed to double a population
total fertility rate (TFR): the number of births in a society
infant mortality rate (IMR): the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, compared with total live births
life expectancy: measures the average number of years a newborn can expect to live at current mortality levels
dependency ratio: the number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years
sex ration: the number of males per one hundred females in a population The following vocabulary words are some factors that affect the demographic transition of a country: Demographic Transition Model (DTM) demography: the scientific study of population characteristics

Demographic transition a process of the change in a society's population.

Stage 1: Low Growth
In stage 1, there is both a high CBR and a high CDR, therefore there is a low NIR. Also there is a low doubling time, a low TFR, a high IMR and a low life expectancy. During stage 1, an agricultural revolution occurs, which is the factor that transitions a country to stage 2. This agricultural revolution was the time when humans first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.

Stage 2: High Growth
During stage 2, the country experiences a high population growth and NIC. This is due to the fact that the CBR remains consistent, but the CDR begins to decline. The factors that occur during stage 2 that cause a country to push into stage 3 are the Industrial Revolution and the Medical Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology (including the invention of the steam engine, mass production, powered transportation, and more) that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market. It began in England in the late 18th century and spread throughout Europe and into North America. The Medical Revolution occurred when the medical technology invented in MDCs like North America and Europe, diffused to LDCs such as Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This created a decrease in the IMR and the CDR, and an increase in the life expectancy.

Stage 3: Moderate Growth
Stage 3 is considered moderate population growth because while the CDR is still continuously dropping, the CBR also begins to drop rapidly. At this time, both the CBR and the CDR are dropping at about the same rate, causing an average NIR. The country continues to grow industrially and medically. Many countries of the world are in stage 2 or 3 of the DTM.

Stage 4: Low Growth
During stage 4, a country hits state of low population growth because both the CBR and the CDR have plummeted and are both very low, yet close together. This country may have even achieved zero population growth (ZPG). This occurs when the CBR declines to the point where it equals or is lesser than the CDR, and the NIR approaches zero. A country that is currently in stage 4 is very developed and farther along on the DTM. Very few countries in the world are in stage 4. census: a complete enumeration of a population pandemic: disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population epidemiology: the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality

Epidemiological transition focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.

Stage 1
Stage 1 of the epidemiologic transition has been called the stage of pestilence and famine. Infectious and parasitic diseases were principle causes of human deaths, along with with accidents and attacks from animals and other humans. The most deadly example of this is the Black Plague.

Stage 2
Stage 2 of the epidemiologic transition has been called the stage of receding pandemics. Improves sanitation, nutrition, and medicine during the Industrial Revolution reduced the spread of infectious diseases. death rates did not decline immediately nor universally during the early stages of the Industrial Revolution. Poor people were crowding into industrial cities, causing high death rates.

Stage 3:
Stage 3 of the epidemiologic transition, the stage of degenerative and human-created diseases, is characterized by a decrease in deaths and an increase in chronic disorders associate with aging. The two especially important chronic disorders in stage 3 are cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks, and various forms of cancer. As LDCs recently moved from stage 2 to stage 3, the mount of infectious diseases declined.

Stage 4:
In stage 4, the major degenerative causes of death-cardiovascular diseases and cancers--linger, but the life expectancy of older people is extended through medical advances. Through medicine, cancers spread more slowly or are removed altogether. Operations such as bypasses repair deficiencies in the cardiovascular system Also improving behavior changes such as better diet, reduced use of alcohol and tobacco, and exercise.

Possible Stage 5
If a stage 5 does truly exist, it would be the sage or reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Infectious diseases thought to have been eradicated or controlled have returned, and new ones have emerged. A consequence of stage 5 would be higher CDRs. AIDS is the best example of a stage 5 disease. The possible reasons for a stage 5 are the following:
1. Evolution - Infectious disease microbes have evolved and changed in response to drugs and insecticides. Antibiotics and genetic engineering contribute to the emergence of new strains of viruses and bacterias. Example = Malaria
2. Poverty - Poor people cannot afford medical practices and are exposed to the diseases. They do not have the money to prevent them, nor have the money to heal them. Example = Tuberculosis
3. Improved Travel - Pandemics have occurred due to the fact that more people are traveling. A disease occurs in one area and as people from that area travel other places, they bring it with them, and the disease continues to spread unstoppably. Example = H1N1 Key Vocabulary migration: a permanent move to a new location
emigration: migration FROM a location
immigration: migration TO a location
net migration: the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants
mobility: a more general term covering all types of movements from one place to another
circulation: short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis such as daily, monthly, or annually A push factor induces people to move out of their present location, whereas a pull factor induces people to move into a new location. Types of push and pull factors include:
- Economic::
Push: Where that person or those people currently live has no economic opportunity and they are living in poverty.
Pull: The place that they are seeking to move has economic potential and they will be able to move forward financially.
- Cultural::
Push: Two types are slavery and political instability. Those moving may be persecuted, mistreated, forced to move, or other undesirable things.
Pull: People ay be attracted to democratic countries that encourage individual choice in education, career, choice of residence, and religion.
- Environmental::
Push: People may be pushed from their homes because of a natural disaster such as a flood, earthquake, volcanic eruption, fire, tsunami, drought, or large storm.
Pull: People may also be pulled to another place because of physically attractive features. floodplain: the area subject to flooding during a specific number of years, based on historical trends. Epidemiologic Transition intervening obstacle: an environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration Distance of Migration most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country
long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity Internal Migration International migration is permanent movemet from one country to another.
Internal migration is permanent movement within the same country.
Interregional migration is movement from one region of a country to another.
Intraregional migration is movement within one region. International Migration Voluntary migration implies that the migrant has CHOSEN to move for economic improvement.
Forced migration means that the migrant has been COMPELLED to move by cultural factors.
Migration transition consists of changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic transition. Characteristics of Migrants Most long-distant migrants are male.
Most long-distant migrants are adult individuals rather thatn families wtih children. At a global scale, Asia, Latin America, and Africa have a net out-migration, and North America, Europe, and Oceania have a net in-migration. The three largest flows of migrants are to Europe from Asia and to North America from Asia and Latin America. Migrants from countries with relatively low incomes and high NIRs head for relatively wealthy countries, where job prospects are brighter. U.S. Immigration Patterns Colonial Immigration from England and Africa: Immigration to the American colonies and the newly independent U.S. came from two principal sources: Europe and Africa. Most Africans were forced to migrate to the U.S. as slaves, whereas most Europeans were voluntary migrants -- although harsh economic conditions and persecution in Europe blurred the distinction between forced and voluntary migration for many europeans.
Nineteenth-Century Migration from Europe:: -1840s and 1850s: Annual immigration jumped from 20,000 to 200,000. Desperate economic push factors compelled the Irish and the Germans to come to America. Germans also left to escape political unrest.
- 1870s: Emigration from Western Europe resumed following a temporary decline during the U.S. Civil War.
- 1880s: Immigration increased to 500,000 per year. Increasing number of Scandinavians, especially Swedes and Norwegians, joined Western Europeans in migrating to the U.S. The Industrial Revolution had diffused to Scandinavia, triggering a rapid population increase.
- 1900-1914: Now immigration to the U.S. is nearly 1,000,000 a year. 2/3 of all immigrants during this period came from Southern and Eastern Europe, especially Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. The shift in the primary source of immigrants coincided with the diffusion of the Industrial Revolution to Southern and eastern Europe, along with rapid population growth. Recent Immigration from LDCs: The three leading sources of U.S. immigrants from asia are China, India, and the Philippines. Nearly 500,000 emigrate to the U.S. annually from Latin America, more than twice as many during the entire 19th century. unauthorized (undocumented) immigrants: those who enter a country without proper documents
chain migration: the migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there Other vocabulary that is related to migration:
quotas: maximum limits on the number of people who could migrate to the U.S. from each country during a one-year period
brain drain: a large-scale emigration by talented people
guest workers: citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East refugees: people who have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion Some migrants have problems while they live in other countries. In the U.S. in the 1900s, migrants got attitude from the citizens. Many Americans began to believe that no one should be permitted into the country because it is no longer expanding. In Europe, guest workers also face discrimination. Attacks on migrant workers and restrictions on their arrival have increased. The following are examples of migration between regions within the U.S. :
- Colonial settlement
- Early settlement int he interior
- Migration to California
- Settlement of the Great Plains
- Recent Growth of the South Migration between regions in other countries:
- Russia = migration was stimulated by the Soviet Union to places in need of workers in the labor force
- Brazil = the government moved the national capitol to encourage migration
- Indonesia = government pays for people to migrate
- Europe = principle flow is from E to S and W to N, reflecting the flow of relatively low incomes to wealthier regions
- India = government limits the amount of migration from one region to another Types of Migration Within One Region Rural to Urban (mainly in LDCs)
Urban to Suburban (mainly on MDCs)
Urban to Rural (mainly in MDCs) counterurbanization: net migration from urban to rural areas UNIT 3 Cultural Patterns and Processes habit: a repetitive act that a particular INDIVIDUAL perform
custom: a repetitive act of a GROUP, performed to the extent that it becomes CHARACTERISTIC of the group Folk culture is traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogenous groups living in isolated areas and may include a custom.
Popular culture is found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. Origin of Folk and Popular Culture Folk culture often has an anonymous hearths, originating from anonymous sources, at unknown dates, through unidentified originators. They may also have multiple hearths, originating independently in isolated locations. In contrast to folk customs, popular culture is most often a product of MDCs. They arise from a combination of advances in industrail technology and increased leisure time, Industrial technology permits the reproduction of objects in large quantities. Many of these products help people enjoy leisure time, which has increased as a result of the widespread change for the labor force from predominately agriculture to predominately service and manufacturing jobs. The point of folk music is to tell a story or convey information about daily activities. It's origin is anonymous and unknown. On the other hand, popular music iss written by specific individuals for the purpose of being sold to a large number of people. It displays a large amount of skill and originates to the U.S. and Western Europe. Diffusion of Folk and Popular Culture The spread of popular culture typically follows the process of hierarchical diffusion from hearths or nodes of innovation. In contrast, folk culture is transmitted from one location to another more slowly and on a smaller scale, primarily through migration rather than electronic communication.
- The Amish: Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture
- Sports: Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture Globalization is a threat to folk culture. This is because when people turn from folk to popular culture, they may also turn away from the society's traditional values. There is also a threat in the media of a foreign country. Enviromental impacts of popular culture::
- Modifying Nature: Popilar culture can significantly modify or control the environment. It may be imposed on the environment rather than spring forth from it.
- Uniform landscapes: The spatial expression of a popular custom in on location will be similar to another.
- Negative environment impact: the diffusion of some popular customs can adversly impact environmental quality in two way -- depletion of scarce naturl resources and pollution of the landscape. language: a system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
literary tradition: a system of written communication
official language: one that is used by the government for laws, reports, and public objects dialect: a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and punctuation
isogloss: a boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate language family: a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history
language branch: a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago creole (creolized language): a language the results from the mixing of the colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated extinct language: a language once in use - even in the the recent past - but no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world

isolated language: a language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any language family
-Icelandic lingua franca: a language of international communication
pidgin language: a simplified form of a lingua franca
English is the largest universalizing language used as a lingua franca. It is diffusing because of the creation of new words and the fusion of English and other languages. Three examples of this are: Franglais (french and English), Spanglish (Spanish and English), and Denglish ( German and English). universalizing religion: attempts to be global, to appeal all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location
ethnic religion: appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place branch: a large and fundamental division within a religion
denomination: a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
sect: a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination Universalizing Religions:
-Christianity (Roman Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox)
-Islam (Sunni, Shiite)

Ethnic Religions:
-Daoism (Taoism)
-Animism monotheism: belief that there is only one God
polytheism: worship a collection of Gods Origin of Religions - Christianity: Christianity was founded by Jesus in the Middle East
- Islam: Islam traces its origin to the same narrative as Judaism and Christianity - they all consider Adam to be the first to live and Abraham to be one of his descendants.
- Buddhism: Siddhartha Gautama was the founder of Buddhism near the border of India.
- Hinduism: Unlike the others, Hinduism did not originate from a specific founder; it existed prior to recorded history. Diffusion of Religions - Christianity: This religion has diffused through a little of all types of diffusion.
- Islam: Islam mainly diffused through relocation.
- Buddhism: This religion did not diffuse rapidly from its hearth. It spread through a couple different types of diffusion.
- There is a lack of diffusion for all kinds of ethnic religions except Judaism, which had mainly diffused through relocation. ghetto: a city neighborhood set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews missionaries: individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion Places of Worship Christians = churches Muslims = mosques Hindus = temples Buddhists & Shintoists = Pagodas Bahá´í = houses of worship There is sacred spaces in every religion. Examples include: disposal of the dead and religious settlements. A hierarchical religion has a well-defined geographic structure and organizes territory into local administrative units.
Some universalizing religions are highly autonomous religions, or self-sufficient, and interaction among communities is confined to little more than loose cooperation and shared ideas. There are different types of territorial conflicts that arise among religious groups. The two main types are "Religion vs. Government Policies" and "Religion vs. Religion".
- Religion vs. Government Policies:
Religion vs. Social Change
Religion vs. Communism
- Religion vs. Religion
Religious Wars in Ireland
Religious Wars in the Middle East caste system: the class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu was assigned according to religious law fundamentalism: a literal interpretation and a strict and intense adherence to basic principles of a religion UNIT 4 Political Organization of Space While all countries' population pyramids differ, four general types have been identified by the fertility and mortality rates of a country.

Stable pyramid
A population pyramid showing an unchanging pattern of fertility and mortality.

Stationary pyramid
A population pyramid typical of countries with low fertility and low mortality, very similar to a constrictive pyramid.

Expansive pyramid
A population pyramid showing a broad base, indicating a high proportion of children, a rapid rate of population growth, and a low proportion of older people. This wide base indicates a large number of children. A steady upwards narrowing shows that more people die at each higher age band. This type of pyramid indicates a population in which there is a high birth rate, a high death rate and a short life expectancy. This is the typical pattern for less economically developed countries, due to little access to and incentive to use birth control, negative environmental factors (for example, lack of clean water) and poor access to health care.

Constrictive pyramid
A population pyramid showing lower numbers or percentages of younger people. The country will have a greying population which means that people are generally older, as the country has long life expectancy, a low death rate, but also a low birth rate. This pyramid has been occurring more frequently, especially when immigrants are factored out, and is often a typical pattern for a very developed country, a high over-all education and easy access and incentive to use birth control, good health care and few or no negative environmental factors. Population Pyramids ethnicity: identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions or a particular homeland or hearth
race: identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor Distribution of Ethnicities in the U.S. -- Clustering of Ethnicitites::

Regional Concentrations of Ethnicities
- Hispanic/Latino: clustered in Southwest
- African Americans: clustered in Southeast
- Asian Americans: clustered in the West
- American Indians and Alaskan Natives: clustered in the Southwest and Plains states

Concentration of Ethnicities in Cities:
African Americans and Hispanics are highly clustered in urban areas.

-- African American Migration Patterns::
- Forced migration from Africa to the American colonies in the 18th century.
- Immigration from the U.S. South to the northern cities during the first half of the 20th century.
- Immigration from inner-city ghettos to other urban neighborhoods during the second half of the 20th century and beginning og 21st century. triangular slave trade: an efficient triangular trade pattern between Europe, Africa, and the Western Hemisphere sharecropper: works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent by turning over to the landowner a share of crops - racism: the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce and inherent superiority of a particular race
- racist: a person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism

An example of obvious racism is the apartheid in South Africa. Apartheid was the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas. nationality: identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal and personal allegiance to a particular country
nation-state:a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality (example = Denmark)
self-determination: the concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
nationalism: loyalty and devotion to a nationality
multiethnic state: a state that contains more than one ethnicity (example = United States)
multinational states: contain two ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities (example = Russia) Vocabulary Related to Nations Why do Ethnicities Clash? There are cases where two or more ethnicitites do not get along with each other and there is conflict between them. They may fight for various reasons. For instance, there may be competition to dominate a nationality. Some examples of this may be Ethiopia and Eritrea, fighting in Somalia, or competition in Lebanon. There is also conflict caused by dividing ethnicities among more than one state. Some examples of this may be dividing India and Pakistan and the Sinhalese and Tamil in Sri Lanka. ethnic cleansing: a process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region Ethnic Cleansing in Europe:
- The biggest ethnic cleansing in history was the Holocaust, which occurred in Europe during WWII.
- Creation of Multiethnic Yugoslavia
- Destruction of Multiethnic Yugoslavia
Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia
Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo
Ethnic Cleansing in Central Africa - balkanized: a term widely used to describe a small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other
- balkanization: the process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities - state: an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs
- sovereignty: when a country has independence from control of its internal affairs by other states Examples of Problems with Defining States
- Korea: One state or two? (Is it just Korea, or NORTH and SOUTH Korea?)
- China and Taiwan: One state or two? (Some people do not consider Taiwan to be a separate state, although it left China years ago.)
- Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic)
- Polar Regions: Many claims (no country has complete control) mirostates: states with very small land areas

-Monaco -Andorra -Antigua and Barbuda
-Bahrain -Barbados -Dominica -Grenada
-Kiribati -Liechtenstein -Maldives -Tuvalu
-Malta -Micronesia -Nauru -Palau
-St. Kitts & Nevis -St. Lucia -San Marino
-St. Vincent & the Grenadines -the Seychelles
-Sao Tome e Principe -Singepore -Tonga Vocabulary for "Development of the State Concept"
city-state: a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside
colony: a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent
colonialism: the effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory.
imperialism: control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society Shapes of States elongated: long narrow shape (i.e. - Uganda)
prorupted: an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension (i.e. - Chile)
perforated: a state that completely surrounds another one (i.e. - Congo)
fragmented: includes several discontinuous pieces of territory (i.e. - South Africa)
compact: the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly (i.e. - Indonesia) landlocked state: lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by several other countries (i.e. - Uganda) Physical Boundaries coincide with significant features of the natural landscape. desert boundary: A boundary drawn in a desert is a very effective division. This is because they are hard to cross and sparsely inhabited. mountain boundary: Also quite effective, if they are hard to cross. They are also helpful because they are relatively permanent and sparsely inhabited. water boundary: Any body of water dividing two states. They are good because they are readily visible on maps and ariel imagery. Also good because they make it hard for invasion of the states. Cultural boundaries follow the distribution of cultural characteristics. geometric boundaries: straight lines drawn on a map religious boundaries: the creation of a boundary due to separate groups of people that practice different religions language boundary: the creation of a boundary between two different groups of people that speak different languages Boundaries frontier: a zone where no state exercises complete political control Vocabulary for Boundaries Inside States:

- federal state: allocates strong power to units of local government within the country
- unitary state: places most power in the hands of ventral government officials

- gerrymandering: the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power Terrorism is the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands.

State support for terrorism is when a country aids a terrorist or terrorist group. The three offenses for this support are: providing a sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries, supplying weapons, money, and intelligence to terrorists, and planning attacks using terrorists.

Some states that have, or have believed to, support terrorists are: Libya, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan. UNIT 5 Agriculture and Rural Land Use development: the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
more developed country (MDC): also known and a relatively developed country or simply as a developed country, has progressed farther along the development continuum
less developed country (LDC): also known as a developing country or an emerging country, it is in an earlier stage of development Human Development Index (HDI): recognizes that a country's level of development of three factors - economic, social, and demographic The economic factor is gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The social factors are the literacy rate and amount of education. The demographic factor is life expectancy. The gross domestic product (GDP) is the value of the total output of goods and services in a country, normally during a year. The type of job that the majority of the country participates in also is important for the economic factor. agriculture: deliberate modification of earth' surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain subsistence or economic gain

crop: any plant cultivated by people Before agriculture existed, the way people got food was hunting and gathering. This method occurred for thousands of years before people began to domesticate plants and animals. Once the invention of agriculture came around, this method was abandoned and now nobody in the world uses it today. Subsistence
Agriculture Commercial
Agriculture Subsistence agriculture, found in LDCs, is the production of food primarily for the farmer's family. Commercial agriculture, found in MDCs, is the production of food primarily for sale off the farm. Purpose
Farming Percentage of Farmers in the Labor Force Use of Machinery Farm
Size Relationship of Farming to Other Businesses In subsistence agriculture, the main purpose of the farming is to provide food for the farmer's family. In commercial agriculture, the purpose of the farming is to make a profit. In LDCs, about 50% of the labor force is involved with agriculture. In MDCs, about 5% of the labor force is involved with agriculture. In subsistence agriculture, the farmers rely on human and animal power to do the hard work. In commercial agriculture, farmers rely on machines to o the hard work. The average size of farms in LDCs is quite small. The average size of farms in MDCs is relatively large. Commercial farming is closely tied to other businesses. Subsistence farming is not normally connected in many ways to other businesses. Shifting cultivation, sometimes called slash-and-burn agriculture, is practiced in climates with relatively high temperatures and abundant rainfall. Two distinctive characteristics of shifting cultivation are: -farmers clearing land for planting and slashing vegetation and burning the debris AND -farmers growing crops on cleared fields for only a few years until soil nutrients are depleted and then leaving it fallow for man years so the soil can recover. Some major crops that are produced through shifting cultivation include corn, cassava, and millet. Traditionally, the land is owned by the village as a whole, rather than each individual resident. Though shifting cultivation has previously been a quite popular method of farming, its future does not look bright. Newer, more efficient methods are beginning to take over. Pastoral nomadism is a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals. Pastoral nomads depend primarily on animals, rather than crops for survival. But they do consume mainly grain, and not meat. The main types of animals that are included in pastoral nomadism are camels, goats, and sheep. They do not wander aimlessly; there is a strong sense of territoriality among them. Similar to shifting cultivation, pastoral nomadism does not have a bright future. Methods of agriculture that take less time, energy, and space are starting to dominate. Intensive subsistence agriculture feeds 3/4 of the world's people. It means that the farmer must work intensively to subsist on a parcel of land. Areas dominated by wet rice practice the planting of rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings ro a flooded field to promote growth. Areas that are not dominated by this method grow other types of crops such as wheat and barley. A main type of this is crop rotation, which is the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil. Plantation farming is a form of commercial agriculture found in the tropics and subtropics that specializes in the production of one or two specific crops. They are especially found in LDCs. Plantation farms are usually owned by companies on MDCs and the majority of crops produced go to them. Mixed crop and livestock farming is one of the most common forms of commercial agriculture. The most distinctive characteristic of this is the integration of crops and animals. Most of the crops are used as feed for the livestock, and in reverse the animals' manure provides fertilizer for the plants. Mixed crop and livestock farming typically involves crop rotation. The number or fields in the rotation can be anywhere from two to four. The main type of crop used in crop rotation is cereal grains, which are oats, wheat, rye, or barley. Diary farming is most common in MDCs. It is the most important commercial agriculture practiced near urban areas, One challenge that dairy farmers face is that cows have to be milked twice a day, and that is very labor-intensive. Also, during the winter when the grass dies, the farmers have to buy expensive feed to keep the cows well-fed. Some form of grain is the major crop on most farms. Grain is the seed from grasses. This i different from mixed crop and livestock farming because the crop is mainly for human consumption, rather than that of animals. Ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. This type of farming is adapted to arid or semiarid climates. Commercial gardening and fruit farming is often called truck farming. This is the growing of fruits and vegetables that consumers in more developed societies demand. Challenges for Commercial Farmers:
-Because the sole purpose of commercial farming is to sell the products to the market and make a product, it is important for these farms to be close to the market so that the products can get to the market with the longest time of freshness left as possible. ***Von Thunen model
-Commercial farmers suffer from low incomes because they are capable of producing much more food than is demanded by consumers in MDCs.
-Sustainable agriculture is an agricultural practice that perserves and enhances environmental quality. Three of its characteristics are: sensitive land management, limited use of chemicals, and better integration of crops and livestock. Challenges for subsistence farmers;
-Subsistence farmers must feed an increasing number of people because of rapid population growth in LDCs.
-Subsistence farmers must grow food for export instead of for direct consumption due to the adoption of the international trade approach to development. Strategies to increase food supply:
-expanding the land area used for agriculture
-increasing the productivity of land now used for agriculture
-identifying new food sources
-increasing exports from other countries A service is any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it. The principal purpose of consumer services is to provide services to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay for them. The principal purpose of business services is to facilitate other businesses. The purpose of public services is to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses. Retail and Wholesale Services Education Services Health Services Leisure and Hospitality Services Financial Services Professional Services Transportation and Information Services A clustered rural settlement is a place where as number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
-Circular rural settlements
-Linear rural settlements A dispersed rural settlement is characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than along-side other farmers in settlements. Urban settlements have larger size, higher density, and more social heterogeneity than rural settlements. There is also an increasing amount of people living in / migrating to cities. This is called urbanization - an increasing number and an increasing percentage of people living in cities. Central Place Theory -Central place theory helps to explain how the most profitable location can be identified.
-A central place is a market center for the exchange for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
-The area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted is the market area or hinterland.
-The range is the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
-The threshold is the minimum number of people needed to support a service. Profitability of a location:
1. Compute the range
2. Compute the threshold
3. Draw the market area The gravity model predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely relates to the number of people to access it. Other types of models and markets:
-Rank-size rule: in which the nth-largest is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
-primate city rule: in which the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
-primate city: the country's largest city
-periodic markets: venders that come together at different places at different times (everything is random) -basic industries: export primarily to consumers outside the settlement
-nonbasic industries: enterprises who customers live in the same community
-economic base: a community's unique collection of base industries Business Services in LDCs Offshore Financial Services Back Offices Taxes Privacy Low wages Ability to Speak English Business Serives in MDCs World Cities Command and Control Centers Specialized Producer-Service Centers Dependent Centers Dominant World Cities Major World Cities Secondary World Cities Resort, Retirement, and Residential Centers Manufacturing Centers Military Centers Mining Centers UNIT 6 Cities and Rural Land Use Workers in MDCs are more productive than those in LDCs. Productivity is the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it. It can be measured by the value added per capita. The value added in manufacturing is the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw material and energy. The cost of consumer goods reflects the wealth of the country. Primary sector: agriculture Secondary sector: manufacturing Tertiary sector: services Education & Literacy:
In general, the quantity and quality of education is higher in MDCs. The literacy rate is the percentage on a country's people who can read and write. Health and Welfare:
People are healthier in MDCs than those in LDCs. They have better provision of food and better health care.. They also have more wealth to take care of the people. Life Expectancy: People in MDCs live longer. Infant Mortality Rate: There is a higher rate of babies who live in MDCs. Natural Increase Rate: The NIT in LDCs is higher than that in MDCs. Crude Birth Rate: LDCs have higher NIRs because they have higher CBRs. More Developed Regions: -North America: HDI 0.95
-Europe: HDI 0.93
-Russia: HDI 0.73
-Japan: HDI 0.96
-Oceania: HDI 0.90
Less Developed Regions -Latin America: HDI 0.82
-East Asia: HDI 0.77
-Southwest Asia & North Africa: HDI 0.74
-Southeast Asia: HDI 0.73
-Central Asia: HDI 0.70
-South Asia: HDI 0.61
-Sub-Saharan: HDI 0.51 The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) compares the level of women's development with that of both sexes. Economic indicator of gender differences: Per capita female income as a percentage of per capita male income. Social indicators of gender differences: Number of females enrolled in school compared to number of males and percent pf literate females compared to percent of literate males. Demographic indicator of gender differences: Life expectancy of females compared to males. The Gender Empowerment Index (GEM) compares the ability of women and men to participate on economic and political decision making. Economic indicators of empowerment: Per capita female income as a percentage of per capita male income and percentage of professional and technical jobs held by women. Political indicators of empowerment: Percentage of administrative jobs held by women and percentage of members of the national parliament who are women. Rostow's Development Model:
1. The Traditional Society
2. The Preconditions for Takeoff
3. The Takeoff
4. The Drive to Maturity
5. The Age of Mass Consumption Self-Sufficiency Approach:
According to the self-sufficiency approach, a country should spread investment as equally as possible across all of its economy and in all regions.

1. Protection of inefficient businesses
2. Need for large bureaucracy
International Trade Approach:
The international trade model of development calls for a country to identify its distinctive or unique economic assets.

{The Four Asian Dragons}
1. South Korea
2. Singapore
3. Taiwan
4. Hong Kong

1. Uneven resource distribution
2. Increased dependence on MDCs
3. Market decline Financing development for LDCs: the world Bank, the IMF, and structural adjustment programs ( includes economic goals, strategies for achieving objectives, and external financing requirements). Fair trade means that products are a=made and traded according to standards that protect workers and small businesses in LDCs. The Industrial Revolution was a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

Home-based manufacturing was known as the cottage industry system. situation factor: involve transporting materials to and from a factory An industry in which the inputs weigh more than the final is bulk-reducing industry. The optimal plant location is as close as possible to inputs if the cost of transporting raw materials to the factory exceeds the cost of transporting the product to consumers. Examples: copper and steel. A bulk-gaining industry makes something that gains volume or weight during production. The optimal plant location is as close as possible to the customer if the cost transporting the product exceeds the cost of transporting inputs. Examples: fabricated metals and beverage production. Forms of Transportation:

break-of-bulk point: a location where transfer among transportation modes is possible outsourcing: turning over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers UNIT 7 Urban Geography Downtown is known to geographers by the more precise term central business district (CBD). Land here is very expensive because there is a high competition for land. According to the concentric zone model, a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings. In the sector model, the city grows in sectors, not rings. According to the multiple nuclei model, a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve Squatter settlements are small areas outside of urban areas in LDCs. They are created because the poor people have nowhere else to go, and the poor migrants from the rural areas cannot afford housing. Vocabulary related to inner-city issues:
-filtering: the process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower-income people
-redlining: drawing lines on a map to identify areas in which banks will refuse to loan money
-urban renewal: cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the property from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, and build new roads and facilities
-public housing: reserved for low-income households
-gentrification: the process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing
-underclass: inner-city residents are often trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems Urban Expansion
-annexation: the process of legally adding land area to a city
-defining urban settlements:
1. City: a legal entity
2. Urbanized area: a continuously built of area
3. Metropolitan area: s functional area According to the peripheral model, an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. Defining Urban Settlements:
-The term city defines an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
-In the US, a city surrounded by suburbs is sometimes called a central city.
- In the US, the central city and the surrounding built-up suburbs is called an urbanized area.
-Other = Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, Core Based Statistical Areas, Combined Statistical Areas, and Primary Census Statistical Areas. The Peripheral Model:
-Around the beltway are nodes of consumer and business services, called edge cities.
-The density change in an urban area.
-Greenbelts are rings of open space.
-Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland has been called smart growth.
-Zoning ordinances encourage spatial separation.
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