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Film Techniques

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by

Michelle Day

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of Film Techniques

Film Techiques AOS 1: Reading and Responding Why do we look at film techniques? Shot Types Camera Angle Mise-en-scene Editing Sound Important Things to Remember! Every single element of each shot is a conscious choice made by the director to enhance the meaning of the film. From the music, to the background, the camera angle, costuming and the positioning of the actors in the frame. Different shot types and angles can convey whether the audience is viewing the protagonist or antagonist, whether a scene is safe or if something is awry; even how much an audience should emotionally invest in a character.The director can heavily influence narrative through their use of angles and shot types. The angle of a shot also affects the audience. It can make small figures seem impressive and empowered, big figures appear small and insignificant, and can create a feeling of unease. The process of determining length and sequence of shots in a film.
Tension and excitement can be generated by brief shots and frequent cuts.
A more reflective and slower paced film would use longer shots.
Helps to create not only the narrative but also the style and feel of a film - Influences the audiences responses to the film's characters and events. Establishes mood and atmosphere, and can express the inner life of characters through the way their settings are depicted on screen.
The way each shot is composed has an effect on the way we respond to the narrative. Composition in particular relates to:
setting and set design
costumes and props
colours
arrangement and movement within frame
spatial relations between the objects and characters
framing - the choice of borders enclosing a shot Diagetic Sound: Sound that is part of what is going on on the screen. We are able to see the source of this sound. Eg. Horses hooves, dialogue.

Non Diagetic Sound: Sound that we know is not a part of what's on screen. Eg. Music, voice overs.

Ambient Sound: Live background sounds creating the illusion that we are seeing and hearing a real world. Functions to enhance the drama.

Sound Bridge: Sound is used as a link between two scenes.

Moments of silence can be extremely powerful and have a large effect on the audience. When discussing shot type, it is important to remember two things:1. The bigger the figure is on screen, the greater the importance.2. The longer a camera holds on a subject, the greater the importance. Types of Shot Extreme Long Shot What effect does this have on the audience? Lots of background - if there are people in the shot they are insignificant.
Emotionally withdrawn from scene.
Displays where scene/location is based.
Also used to show vastness and scale. Long Shot Used to show who is in the scene, where they are and what is going on.
while the focus is on the characters, plenty of background detail still emerges.
You can also begin to read expressions on the characters face. Mid Shot Can fit 2-3 characters and the background becomes less significant.
Used for dialogue scenes or to show some action.
Gives audience an idea of distance and shows the proximity between characters. What do you think this shot is telling us? Close Up One face dominates the shot so you can read expressions very well.
Can read intention or the charcetrs state of mind.
Normally used for important dramatic moments.
Can also be used for objects that the director wants the viewer to see Extreme Close Up Displays only a portion of the face or an object in greater detail.
Can be used to convey intimacy.
When something that is normally small is viewed in ECU, it enhances the importance for the audience.
Gives a symbolic value to the object. Overshot The camera is placed directly above the subject
Often used with establishing shots.
Puts the audience in a God-like position, looking down on the action.
Characters can be made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of the wider scheme of things. High Angle The camera is positioned above subject, looking down at an angle.
Makes subject appear smaller, powerless and more vulnerable. Eye Level Most commonly used camera angle in film and television.Whereas most other camera angles are highly stylised, an eye level shot creates a sense of normalcy and realism; this is how we see the world. Low Angle Camera is positioned below eye level looking upwards
Implies a sense of power and dominance
The background of a low angle shot will tend to be just sky or ceiling, the lack of detail about the setting adding to the disorientation of the viewer.
The added height of the object may make it inspire fear and insecurity in the viewer, who is psychologically dominated by the figure on the screen The bigger the figure, the greater the importance.
The longer a camera focuses on a subject, the greater the importance.
Every single element of each shot enhances meaning for the audience.
The opening sequence can be critical to setting a tone and providing a key to important themes.
Endings are also critical, providing the final cue to a film's meaning.
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