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CONGO

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Elaine Mendoza

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of CONGO

THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO CONFLICT
Elaine Mendoza, Sheryl Payne, Denise Bosinceanu, Will Martin Culture Nationality: Congolese
Official Language: French
Religion: 50% Catholics, 20% protestant, 10% Muslim

School Life expectancy 8 Years
1 in 5 children will die
0.8 hospital beds/1000 citizens Population: 73,599 190
Over 250 ethnic groups
Majority are Bantu
Four Major tribes include:
Mongo, Luba, Mangbetu, Kongo History of the Congo International Response UN peacekeeping mission in DR Congo for over 10 years
suported FARDC against the FDLR Belgian Colonization and Exploitation of the Congo MONUSCO mandate protection of civilians
support of government efforts
stabilization and peace consolidation
support of elections Ethnic Makeup MONUSCO facts and figures Politics in the Democratic Republic
of Congo initial authorization: 22,016 total uniformed personnel
as of August 2012 : 19,083 total uniformed personnel former government of Mobuto Sese Seko toppled by rebellion led by Laurent Kabila
all executive, legislative and military powers were first vested in the president
regime more oppresive than worst days of Mobuto Sese Seko
Kabila government arrested hundreds of people
Laurent Kabila created tried to create a Transitional Parliment
assassinated in January 16 2001 A fourteen nation european conference was held to decide the fate of the Congo river basin territory

It was divided up to prevent conflict and the great majority share fell into the hands of Leopold II, King of the Belgians

As the private owner, he named it the Congo Free State and built monopolies over ivory, gold and rubber

He taxed the villages with resource quotas

This lasted from 1835 to 1909 and greatly benefited Belgium

The government then decided to take control of the colony, renaming the state: Belgian Congo

The Church, companies and the government ruled the colony Congolese government wants UN to leave
fail to end violence
risks becoming complicit in atrocities (suggested by HRW) Son Joseph Kabila became head of state and continued idea of Transitional government
many weaknesses in Transitional Parliment
Joseph Kabila still current president
re-elected in 2011 Lifestyle Independence Current Situation The motions pressuring independence from colonial rule were a product of the mistreatment given by the Belgian rule

They were developed through a number of stages :
-Primary resistance
-Millenairism
-Urban violence
-prepolitical associations
-political parties

Patrice Lamumba's own party; the Congolese National Movement, won 33 chairs in the lower house of parliament during elections before independence

June 30th 1960 he became prime minister of the new independent Congo with his rival political party leader as president Peace has still not been found in parts of the Congo
East parts of Congo especially affected
Rebel group M23 is most prominent and most violent in the east
Horrific trail of new atrocities in Congo
Rwanda is said to be supplying and training M23 Trouble: Mobutu However, many parts found peace
Central government trying to assert control
elections A week after independence was declared, the military mutinied

Lamumba was removed from office and murdered shortly after

The Katanga region attempted to secede but the UN intervened and prevented further violence

Lumumbist rebels staged conflict in the name of Lumumba and cause political unrest

Joseph-Désiré Mobutu staged a military coup in 1965 due to displeasure with political instability

He remained in power for thirty two years as the head of state

Under his rule, he preached extreme nationalism to the state; declaring it the Republic of Zaire, and forcing the conversion of colonial and Belgian names to Zairean alternatives (Mobutu Sese Seko)

He practiced kleptocracy and was deemed as a terrible administrator of social and regional infrastucture.

His rule was not without conflict, and such was his own downfall Laurent Kibala Kabila was a member of the ethnic Luba group

He lived in the east of the Congo, near the border shared with Rwanda.

In 1994, The Rwandan Genocide , perpetrated by the Hutu majority against the Tutsi minority, saw the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of Tutsis.

The Rwandan Patriotic Army defeated the militia Hutu groups perpetrating the worst of the genocide, and took control of Rwanda

Hutus and Interhamwe fled to eastern Congo to evade Tutsi vengeance and found Tutsi refugee camps in Kivu

They began to oppress and harass the Congolese Tutsis, even pushing the South Kivu government to want to exile the Tutsis

The Armed Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire were formed to combat the Congolese government and Hutu people

The AFDL took control of the Congo currently under Mobutu rule and Kabila became the new rebel leader International Awareness The conflicts in the Congo have received much attention from the global community for the many
horrendous crimes and wars
that have gone on in the Congo. African Union
United Nations
European Union Necessity of Awareness The need for awareness of the atrocities stems from the need for aid and intervention

-Katanga Seccession
-AIDS/UNAIDS
-Action Against Hunger

Now more than ever, awareness of the DDR program has become a necessity for the rehabilitation of the many militia groups
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