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Transcript of EVOLUTION
generation to generation
I'll tell you!
But their offspring's traits changed from generation to generation and were NOT 100% the SAME.
i.e. tails and attractive body hair
Monkeys gave some of their characteristics to their offspring
i.e. shorter tails and less attractive body hair.
In other words
The Homer Evolution Video
Evolution is a theory of how we think everything started: from a uni-cellular cell to the organisms of today!
How do we know evolution exists?
It is a fact that living things change from generation to generation according to survival needs.
Take birds for example, their beaks are the way they are according to their survival needs. Like the humming bird, it has a long tongue to reach the nectar of long stemmed flowers that were in their environment.
Isn't evolution just a theory?
Evolution is a theory and involves natural selection (adapting to new environments: the survival of the fittest) which is true. A theory is a tested hypothesis or a hypothesis based on facts or observation.
Who got the idea of evolution?
Naturalist Charles Darwin and many other people who believed in the evolutionary theory in the 1800s.
Darwin struggled bringing the realization of evolution in a Christian Victorian Society and with painful doubts of his own faith. Later, he took the Bible as an allegory for the beauty of natural science and died an agnostic in 1882.
Now let's look at the types of evidence of evolution!
Fossils can be:
Any preserved remains or traces of an organism
Any preserved remains or traces of an organism's activity
i.e. a skull, bones, fur...
i.e. feces (poop), a nest, a path of vegetation bended by an elephant
Applying to evolution
The study of fossils.
We can find fossils and organisms that show the transition from an ancestral form to modern descendants.
The transition of a land animal to the humongous mammal called the whale.
In other words:
Comparing living beings' bodies.
TYPES OF OBSERVATIONS
Body parts that are
similar in structure
but have entirely
due to a common ancestor.
Inside is similar
Output is different
More-or-less developed features. So features
for the descendant
in progress of being useful
These features are generally thought to be vestigial structures. Some may still have some function, but their PRIMARY FUNCTION has been LOST.
Structures with a
different internal anatomy and evolutionary origin
(ancestor the trait started to appear from).
evolve a similar characteristic independently
of one another. Often occurs since lineages
faced similar environmental challenges
AGE OF THE EARTH
What it means:
Finding out how old fossils or dirt/rock is.
How can we know how old earth is?
Calculating the age of rock-and of embedded objects-by measuring the decay of radioisotopes in the rock.
Unstable atoms that undergo decay (release energy and change from one type of isotope to another).
The time required for half a substance to undergo decay.
i.e. The half life of Iodine is 13.2 hours.
HALF LIFE EQUATION
If we know
concentration of radioisotopes
in the earth (earth near fossil or the rock the fossil was embedded)
had to go
at that quantity, we'll find out
how old the fossil is
or the fossil embedded in the rock!
Geographical distribution of species:
where species live around the world.
What is it:
Closely related species usually are found near each other in the same geographic region.
i.e. The different species of finches found in the Galapagos Islands. They had different beaks used for their individual survival needs (i.e. a strong beak for eating nuts).
What is it:
Evolutionary relationships among species can be seen in:
similarities and differences
Changes in functional and non-functional genes occur over time.
The greater the differences,
the more distant the relationship.
GREEN EYES= non-functional traits in genes
HAZEL EYES= non-functional traits in genes
Hazel eyes from father's side is now a functional trait!
Evolution is happening today!
The alternation of
traits due to
selection in both the wild and the laboratory has been witnessed in:
The genetic make up in an organism.
from parent to offspring
of an organism
genotype and their surrounding environment
DEFINITIONS FOR NEXT SLIDE
The physical make up of an organism.
in order to
which results to
evolving to something new or different
The survival of the fittest.
(animals or plants)
. This is
done to maintain desirable inheritable characteristics in the offspring
The breeding of organisms to produce desirable traits.
WE CAN SEE EVOLUTION TODAY BY...
dog breeds, fruit flies, and crops.
Types of Evidence of Evolution
Age of the Earth