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EVOLUTION

Defining the theory of evolution and its evidence.
by

Gabriela C

on 28 September 2014

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Transcript of EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION
EVOLUTION
What Is
evolution?

Evolution is....
The
change
in the
inherited traits
(genes)

of a
population
from
generation to generation
I'll tell you!
But their offspring's traits changed from generation to generation and were NOT 100% the SAME.
i.e. tails and attractive body hair

Monkeys gave some of their characteristics to their offspring
i.e. shorter tails and less attractive body hair.
The
process
involving
something
that
gradually develops

into
something
different
or
new
.
*Imagined Scenario
In other words
Videos
The Homer Evolution Video

Evolution is a theory of how we think everything started: from a uni-cellular cell to the organisms of today!
How do we know evolution exists?
It is a fact that living things change from generation to generation according to survival needs.
Take birds for example, their beaks are the way they are according to their survival needs. Like the humming bird, it has a long tongue to reach the nectar of long stemmed flowers that were in their environment.
Isn't evolution just a theory?
Evolution is a theory and involves natural selection (adapting to new environments: the survival of the fittest) which is true. A theory is a tested hypothesis or a hypothesis based on facts or observation.
Who got the idea of evolution?
Naturalist Charles Darwin and many other people who believed in the evolutionary theory in the 1800s.
Darwin struggled bringing the realization of evolution in a Christian Victorian Society and with painful doubts of his own faith. Later, he took the Bible as an allegory for the beauty of natural science and died an agnostic in 1882.
C
h
a
n
g
e
.

Now let's look at the types of evidence of evolution!
FOSSIL RECORD
Fossils can be:
Any preserved remains or traces of an organism
Any preserved remains or traces of an organism's activity
i.e. a skull, bones, fur...
i.e. feces (poop), a nest, a path of vegetation bended by an elephant
Applying to evolution
Paleontology:
The study of fossils.
We can find fossils and organisms that show the transition from an ancestral form to modern descendants.
For example:
The transition of a land animal to the humongous mammal called the whale.
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
In other words:
Comparing living beings' bodies.
TYPES OF OBSERVATIONS
Homologous features
Body parts that are
similar in structure
but have entirely
different functions

due to a common ancestor.
Inside is similar
Output is different
Vestigial features
More-or-less developed features. So features
from
previous
ancestors
which are
not useful

for the descendant
.
Or
features
in progress of being useful
.
These features are generally thought to be vestigial structures. Some may still have some function, but their PRIMARY FUNCTION has been LOST.
Analogous features
Structures with a
similar function
but with
different internal anatomy and evolutionary origin
(ancestor the trait started to appear from).
Convergent Evolution
When
distinct lineages

evolve a similar characteristic independently
of one another. Often occurs since lineages
faced similar environmental challenges
and
survival needs
.
AGE OF THE EARTH
What it means:
Finding out how old fossils or dirt/rock is.
How can we know how old earth is?
Radiometric dating
Calculating the age of rock-and of embedded objects-by measuring the decay of radioisotopes in the rock.
Radioisotopes
Unstable atoms that undergo decay (release energy and change from one type of isotope to another).
HALF LIFE
The time required for half a substance to undergo decay.
i.e. The half life of Iodine is 13.2 hours.
HALF LIFE EQUATION
123
If we know
how long
the
concentration of radioisotopes
in the earth (earth near fossil or the rock the fossil was embedded)
had to go
in order
to decay
at that quantity, we'll find out
how old the fossil is
or the fossil embedded in the rock!
BIOGEOGRAPHY
Geographical distribution of species:

where species live around the world.
What is it:
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
THE PRESENT
Closely related species usually are found near each other in the same geographic region.
i.e. The different species of finches found in the Galapagos Islands. They had different beaks used for their individual survival needs (i.e. a strong beak for eating nuts).
What is it:
DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic acid)
Evolutionary relationships among species can be seen in:
the
similarities and differences
in their
DNA
and
proteins
.
Changes in functional and non-functional genes occur over time.
The greater the differences,
the more distant the relationship.
BROWN HAIR+
GREEN EYES= non-functional traits in genes
HAZEL EYES= non-functional traits in genes
Hazel eyes from father's side is now a functional trait!
What?
Evolution is happening today!
The alternation of
genotypic
and
phenotypic
traits due to
natural
and
artificial
selection in both the wild and the laboratory has been witnessed in:
The genetic make up in an organism.
Phenotype
The total
genes
given
from parent to offspring
.
Genotype
The
appearance
of an organism
caused
from the
interaction
of its
genotype and their surrounding environment
.
DEFINITIONS FOR NEXT SLIDE
The physical make up of an organism.
Natural Selection
Adapting
to
surrounding environment
in order to
survive
which results to
evolving to something new or different
.
The survival of the fittest.
Artificial Selection
The
process
of
selecting organisms
(animals or plants)
to mate
. This is
done to maintain desirable inheritable characteristics in the offspring
.
The breeding of organisms to produce desirable traits.
WE CAN SEE EVOLUTION TODAY BY...
Examples:
dog breeds, fruit flies, and crops.
MALTESE SHIHTZU
+
Maltese
Shih Tzu
=
G
O
O
D

L
U
C
K

S
T
U
D
Y
I
N
G
!
Evolution today
Types of Evidence of Evolution
Fossil Record
Age of the Earth
Biogeography
Comperative Anatomy
Molecular Biology
Full transcript