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Peace Journalism

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Kulsoom Rizvi

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of Peace Journalism

PEACE JOURNALISM
Presentation by Kulsoom Rizvi

..."when editors and reporters make choices - about what to report, and how to report it - that creates opportunities for society at large to consider and to value non-violent responses to conflict."
(Lynch)
According to
Ibrahim Seaga Shaw
, peace journalism strives to bring "attention to both and all sides of conflict."
(2011, pp. 100)
In other words, peace journalism doesn't pick sides.
What is
peace journalism
This presentation will evaluate the performance of peace journalism (PJ) by looking

at
Sometimes the "objective" analysis is blurred with activism. A journalist's role is not to promote peace, but to merely report it.
PJ provides a critical conflict analysis which
some say lacks in mainstream media.
Human rights journalism vs. peace journalism
BUT!
To evaluate PJ, you must consider the types of "journalisms" it compares to.
War journalism vs. peace journalism
PEACE JOURNALISM
Presentation by Kulsoom Rizvi
Press the spacebar to start with the first toolset.
E
S
O
O
L
S
T
T
SOLUTION
ORIENTED
WIN-WIN
ORIENTED
PEOPLE
ORIENTED
TRUTH
ORIENTED
Johan Galtung Model
(Brock-Utne, 2011 pp. 71)
As Lynch argues, PJ tends to be more realistic in its approach. McGoldrick also emphasizes PJ to be a more "fair" and "accurate" way of reporting than "war journalism." This point will be discussed in the last "tool-set." (McGoldrick, 2011 pp. 122)
To establish the truth, PJ emphasizes the need for "equal attention to victims of all sides of conflict." (Shaw, 2011 pp. 100)

This also means to not depend on receiving the "truth" from the elites (politicians and intellectuals).
Establishing truth and emphasizing on all players of conflict leads to a "win-win" logic of "finding solutions instead of just reporting facts of violence." (Shaw, 2011 pp. 107)

In other words, "humanization on all sides through empathy and understanding." (McGoldrick, 2011 pp. 132)
All of these variables would "lessen the influence of media in favour of violence and create a social capital for peace." (McGoldrick, 2011 pp. 122)

In other words, a "win-win" environment will allow the audience to consider "nonviolent" approaches and solutions in establishing peace and initiating dialogue.
TOOLSET #1
"Peace journalism is more realistic, in the sense of fidelity to a reality that already exists."
(Lynch)
There's a focus on "positive" peace building and "positive" human rights to correlate the amount of "negative" peace reporting occurring in the media.
(Shaw, 2011 pp. 98)
So what does the
model
mean
The advantage peace journalism has is providing critical conflict analysis and "creativity that is needed to help people actively participate" in conflict resolution." (Shaw, 2011 pp. 107)

The media has an important role in
the promotion of peace and human rights.
BUT DOES IT
TOOLSET #2
David Layn argues PJ is "meaningless" and a "misleading prescription for journalism in general."
(2007)
WHY?
Active participation
Promoting human rights and peace
Peace journalism will end wars
media over reports conflict and violence
Journalists become players
"perfect truth"
media needs to put "strong emphasis on "emotions" and "trauma" in reports
BAD
DARFUR EXAMPLE

- - Difficult to capture images of "damaged villages" and "fighting itself." Trying to report on what was happening was even more difficult.

- - Coverage focused mainly on "personal suffering, the damage to psychology structure and culture"
Media
ACTUALLY
"underreports" conflict;
failing to expose it in its early stages

(Loyn, 2007)
TOOLSET #3
To evaluate PJ properly, it's important to look at how human rights journalism complements PJ.
But those who practice PJ say journalists are not "active participants."
INTERVIEW WITH STEVE YOUNGBLOOD
Director, Center for Global Peace
"Peace journalists are not players—they are reporting on the peacemaking activities of others. PJ as I teach it is not advocacy for peace, but merely recognizing that we have a responsibility to report about peaceful alternatives and to question those (incl governments) who advocate violence."
PEACE
HUMAN RIGHTS
- peace-oriented; prevention; win-win
- truth-oriented
- people-oriented: gives voice to all
- solution-oriented

- focused on human rights violations
- nonviolence/cultural violence-oriented: proactive
- people/human face oriented: gives voice to all but biased in favoir of "vulnerable people"
- Holistic problem-soliving
"Philosophical and practical differences"
Both consider and value non-violent responses to conflict which is important to understand the "context of global justice."
BUT
This relates back to
TOOLSET #1
about PJ providing critical context analysis. HRJ helps emphasize that.
REACTIVE
PROACTIVE
PJ
HRJ
Both encourage advocacy, intervention and less emphasis on violence.
This leads to the final
TOOLSET
WAR JOURNALISM
TOOLSET #4
"The peace journalism model can give journalists and their audiences a fuller understanding of conflict and alternatives to violence. In this way, journalists can avoid falling prey to
political war rhetoric
veiled in peace and humanitarian language or other military tactics."
(Perez de Fransius)
MEASURING PEACE IN THE MEDIA
The Institutee for Economics and Peace analysed
37
TV news programmes from
25
networkers in
15
countries to understand the accuracy of coverage of peace, violence and conflict.
"Broad inconsistencies amongst channels...U.S. focus on violence and conflict more than European and Middle Eastern countries."
(2010)
THE RESULT
WAR JOURNALISM
War/violence oriented
propaganda-oriented
elite-oriented
victory-oriented
To justify PJ, war journalism lacks in detailed conflict analysis, a point made in
TOOLSET #1
.
WJ only concentrates on the "winners." There is no room for peace. BUT, as seen in
TOOLSET #2
, the media's job isn't to establish peace.
This shows the percent of Iraq War media sources in the U.S. McGoldrick states "influence of war journalism shrinks and distorts the social reality we shape and inhabit."
(2011, pp. 122)
McGoldrick acknowledges the fact that WJ does "broadly define peace iniatives," but the majority of the time are "excluded from the representations of those conflicts furnished by the news."
(McGoldrick, 2011 pp. 124)
Peace journalism
CANNOT
be regarded as detached. (McGoldrick, 2011, pp. 140)
"in the boat"
FOUR SPECIFIC TOOLSETS
But as discussed in TOOLSET #2, a journalist should be on the sidelines.
NEW BALANCE IN ROLE
PEACE JOURNALISM
(Lynch, 2011 pp.34)
Peace journalism has its share of advantages and limitations.
But what are the skills needed?
INTERVIEW WITH STEVE YOUNGBLOOD
Director, Global Peace Institute
"Peace journalism is simply good, fundamental reporting. Report it. Give voice to those who advocate peace—at least an equal voice to the warmongers. Closely question government propaganda, and provide thoughtful analysis so that government provocations (and sometimes lies) are not fed to a misinformed public."
SKILLSETS & MINDSETS
What makes peace journalism?
Peace journalism is a adopted and elaborated a normative preference for non-vilenct responses to conflict.
(Lynch, McGoldrick 2005, p. 6)
CONCLUSION
To properly evaluate peace journalism, you must consider four toolsets:
critical analysis, activism, human rights journalism and war journalim.
Peace journalists ought to create an atmosphere where peace can thrive, and where
peaceful alternatives
are given equal consideration by the media. However, it's not the job of the journalist resolve conflicts, but to
give voice
to peacemakers and to peaceful alternatives.
Full transcript