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# Notes: Heat, Thermal Energy

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## Celeste Nicholas

on 30 October 2012

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#### Transcript of Notes: Heat, Thermal Energy

By the end of today you should be able to:
-Define thermal energy, heat, conduction, convection, and radiation.
-Compare and contrast thermal energy, heat, and temperature.
-Predict the direction of heat transfer between two materials.
-Rank objects by their relative thermal energies. Notes: The Heat is On!

Kinetic energy is energy of MOTION.
Temperature is the AVERAGE kinetic energy. Review What is thermal energy? Thermal energy is the SUM of kinetic and potential energy of all molecules.
TOTAL KINETIC ENERGY + POTENTIAL ENERGY = THERMAL ENERGY
==> Where have you heard of potential energy before?
_________________________________________________________

==> How can tiny particles have potential energy?
________________________________________________________

As the amount of particles INCREASES, the thermal energy INCREASES.
==> In the equation, why is it “total” instead of average?
_________________________________________________________ Heat is a type of THERMAL ENERGY that is TRANSFERRED from one object to another when objects are at different temperatures.

Rule of Thumb: Heat transfers from HIGHER TEMP objects to LOWER TEMP objects. What is heat? ==>Milo and Ms. Nicholas both have a body temperature of 98.6°F. The temperature outside is 100°F on a hot August day when the two decide to walk on the Canal together.

The MOST heat is transferred between_________ and the environment.
Why? _____________________ 3 Types of Heat Transfer Convection Conduction Radiation ==> You want to avoid burning your mouth on hot chicken and noodle soup (150°F), so you place ice in it 0°F. Heat is transferring from ___________________ to ___________________.

==> My body temperature is 98.6°F. The temperature outside is 100°F on a hot August day. Heat will transfer from ___________________________to _______________.
Rule of Thumb: The amount of heat (thermal energy) transferred depends on the TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE between the objects. Chart: Types of Heat pg 250-253 1) Conduction occurs when particles in a material collide with neighboring particles.
As faster moving (warmer) particles collide with slowering moving (cooler) ones, energy (heat) is transferred to the slower particles.

Rule of thumb: For conduction to occur, the materials must be close together!
Rule of thumb: Conduction occurs more easily in solids. Why?__________________________________ 2) Radiation occurs when energy is transferred through electromagnetic waves. 3) Convection occurs when particles move from one type of material to another.

Rule of thumb: For convection to occur, the materials must be fluid.

Rule of thumb: Convection occurs more easily in gases and liquids. Why?______ Putting it all together: Temperature, Thermal Energy, Heat
1. Which object has the greatest temperature and why?
2. Which object has the greatest average kinetic energy and why?
3. Which object has the greatest total kinetic energy and why?
4. Which object has the greatest Thermal Energy and why?
5. Which object, left on its own, in outer space, has the greatest heat and why?
6. Which object, connected to the table, has the greatest heat transfer and why?
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