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Population & Settlement: The Contemporary Period

Population developments from 1867 to the present day

John Panetta

on 9 November 2016

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Transcript of Population & Settlement: The Contemporary Period

Population & Settlement
1st Occupants



Fortin, S., Ladouceur, M., Larose, S., & Rose, F. (2009).
Panoramas. Montreal: Graficor.

Charette, J., Daniel, M., Dujardin, L. and Vigneault, P. (2009). A Question of History. Anjou: CEC.

The Maliseet adopted a nomadic lifestyle due to climate
Trade networks
barter of goods
routes along rivers
Horguelin, C., Ladouceur, M., Lord, F. and Rose, F. (2011).
Panoramas. Montreal: Graficor.

Whichever term we use it is important to note that they did not originate from North America
So, where did they come from?
Two theories of migration
1. Land Bridge Theory
2. The Sea Route Theory
walked across the Bering Strait
during the last ice age
based on archeological evidence
sailed across the pacific
at different times throughout history
Based on genetic analysis
they can not be proven in an experiment
The first occupants adapted to the climate & geography
1. Eskimo-Aluet (Inuit)
2. Algonquian
3. Iroquois
Lived a nomadic lifestyle
moved around
they followed their food source
lived in seal-skin tents and igloos
Patriarchal societies
male dominated
Nomadic Lifestyle

gathered berries
Patriarchal societies
Lived in Wigwams
Women are vital for survival!
Sedentary Organization
society is based on agriculture
Matriarchal societies
Remember the trick?
French Regime

Company Rule
Royal Government
This era can be divided into 2 periods
Samuel de Champlain
fur trading companies were responsible for settlement
Quebec City (1608)
Trois Rivieres (1634)
The results:
Mostly young men
Seasonal workers
The Catholic Church was also involved in the initial stages of colonization
Ville Marie (1642)
It's purpose was the conversion of natives
- attracted a small number of missionaries
Painting by Dubois in Notre Dame Basilica
Delfosse in Mary Queen of the World Cathederal
So ...Why was the low population such a concern?
Fear of English invasion
but occupied a small territory
Population of English settlement was large
1. Les Filles du Roi
2. Granting land to soldiers and engages
3. Encourage marriage and family growth
The King takes direct control of the colony
establishes the Sovereign Council
Jean Talon
Took 2 approaches to increase population
1. Increase Immigration
les filles du Roi
officers of the military
-legalized in 1709
3000 slaves: 1100 were African
Marie-Joseph Angelique
2. Increase Natural Growth
required marriages
benefits to those who married
fines and punishments to those not married by 17 years old
encouraged the growth of families
financial incentives to those with 10 or more children
The Results
70 000 inhabitants
due mostly to a high birth rate
The Seigneurial system was used to organize the settlements
The consequences of European settlement on Native populations:
1. Population decline
The spread of diseases like measles and small pox
2. Mixed births
interaction between native women and traders or soldiers stationed at the frontier posts
National Policy & Western Expansion
Boom Years
Population Decline & Diversity
Emigration is still an issue
The Canadian government expands westward
Offers free land to settlers
Consequences of the National Policy
1. Immigration from Europe and Asia
2. The rapid development of urbanization
3. Negative effects on Aboriginal populations
displaced (pushed) and forced to migrate north westward
loss of hunting and fishing grounds
Growth of Francophone population is due to high birth rate
During this period the population will grow to 5 million
2 factors account for this
1. Increase Birth Rate (Baby Boom)
2. Increase Immigration
Factor that accounts for this trend:
They will integrate into the Anglophone community
Factors that account for this:
1. Improvement of Socio-Economic conditions
2. Family reunification
3. Political Refugees
The effects of Immigration on Quebec society:
the development of ethnic neighborhoods
presence of different religious denominations
Consequence of this trend
Infrastructure development
Specialized services development
Urban Sprawl
Regional Decline
Closure of businesses
lack of services
The exceptions to this trend the Aboriginal populations
The Contemporary Period
1867 - Present

Orthodox Christians and Jews from the Ukraine
Settled the West
wheat and cattle farmers
Chinese labourers
creation of Manitoba, Alberta & Saskatchewan
The New York Experience
The country experiences a period of stagnation between 1914 and 1945
The British Regime

Great Britain takes official control of North America in 1763
The change in empire results in:
1. Change in government institutions
2. Change in cultural expressions
3. Change in demographics
growth in total population
new forms of settlement
linguistic and cultural diversity
British Merchants
British Isles
French Canadien Emigration
Small number of merchants
The British implement the Royal Proclamation in 1763
Remember the purpose?
Policies to promote immigration
1. Establish English political and legal institutions
2. Establish the Anglican (Protestant) Church
The measures did not work
Settle in Montreal
High birth rate among Canadien families
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
Who were the United Empire Loyalists?
British subjects loyal to the English Crown in the 13 Colonies
Opposed the independence movement
Refugees from the 13 colonies; now the United States of America
The arrival of the Loyalists will results in significant changes to Quebec
1. Political
2. Demographic
3. Territorial
The adoption of the Constitutional Act (1791)
the creation of an elected Legislative Assembly
Increase in the English Protestant population
160 000 inhabitants
Who was not counted?
Many will settle in New Brunswick and Upper Canada
- some will settle in the Eastern Townships
The division of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada
The use of the Township system for agriculture
Due to Immigration
Due to high birth rate
The next major wave of immigrants are from:
will account for the majority of immigrants
Over 500 000 between 1831 & 1871
What accounts for this?
Poverty and starvation push people out of Ireland
North America in need of cheap labour pulls them in
What were the consequences of their arrival
In the summer of 1847, 5000 died of Typhus
1. The association with the spread of disease
The start of Urbanization
Anglophones will form the majority in Montreal
Griffin Town
The rural areas could no longer support the population
soil was no longer fertile
scarcity of agricultural land
could not compete with Lower Canada
The consequence:
The exodus of French Canadiens was a concern for the Provincial Government and the Catholic Church
Why places like Maine and Massachusetts?
began a program of colonization in the Maurice, Saguenay and the Laurentians
The factors that account for this
Epidemics in the city like Typhus and Cholera
50 000 Canadians died
The Great War (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945)
immigration stops
The Great Depression (1929-1939)
1.5 million births in Canada
The creation of ethnic neighborhoods
What are the consequences of the post-war population boom
1. Urban population will be larger than the rural population
2. Average age of the population will decrease
3. Creation of the Minister de l 'immigration in 1968
Full transcript