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Transcript of Meningitis
Laws Regarding Meningitis
Other Viral Infections Leading to Meningitis
viruses spread by mosquitoes and other insects
Rarely cases of LCMV
spread by rodents
Predictions for the Future
1805: Meningococcal disease first described by Swiss physician Gaspard Vieusseux after an epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland.
1806: First report of meningococcal disease in United States by Elias Mann and Lothario Danielson.
1887: Neisseria meningitidis, the bacteria that causes meningococcal meningitis disease is discovered by Austrian pathologist and bacteriologist Anton Weichselbaum.
1900-10: 75% to 80% of people infected with meningococcal meningitis die from the disease.
1913: Antimeningococcal serum developed by Simon Flexner decreases the mortality in people with the disease.
1940s: Penicillin is used to treat patients with meningococcal disease.
1960s: Several outbreaks occur of the meningococcal meningitis disease during the Vietnam mobilization
1969: Method of purifying meningococcal polysaccharides that were safe and produced an immune response is developed by team of military doctors. (Now used for bivalent and quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccines.)
Most common cause is the spread from person to person through fecal contamination.
Examples being: diaper changing and not properly washing after using toilet.
May also be spread through respiratory secretions.
Saliva and Mucus
Occurs mostly in children and young adults.
Hard to Awaken
Sensitivity to Bright Light
Sleepiness or Trouble Awakening
Lack of Appetite
Nemours Foundation. (2014). Meningitis. Retrieved from http://hidshealth.org/kid/health_ problems/brain/meningitis.html
CDC. (2012, March 15). Viral meningitis. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/viral.html
MedlinePlus. (2012, October 6). Meningitis. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000680.htm
NHS. (2012, June 14). Meningitis - treatment. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Meningitis/Pages/Treatment.aspx
Newsmax. (2011, March 17). Meningitis: top treatment centers. Retrieved from http://www.newsmax.com/FastFeatures/meningitistreatmentcenterstreatmentcentersformeningitismeningitistreatmentcenterMeningitissymptomsandtreatmentcentermeningitistreatment/2011/03/17/id/389777/
Novartis Vaccines, Inc. (2010, October). History of meningococcal meningitis. Retrieved from http://www.meningitis.com/US/about/history-meningitis/
Meningitis Research Foundation. (2014). Who gets meningitis and septicaemia?. Retrieved from http://www.meningitis.org/who-can-be-affected
GHO. (NA). Meningococcal meningitis. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gho/epidemic_diseases/meningitis/en/
WebMD. (2013, February 15). Meningitis-what increases your risk. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/children/vaccines/tc/meningitis-what-increases-your-risk
NCSL. (2012, October). 50 state summary of meningitis legislation and state laws. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/meningitis-state-legislation-and-laws.aspx
NHS. (2012, May 26). Travel illnesses and vaccinations. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/travelhealth/Pages/Travellersillnesses.aspx
What is it?
"a disease involving inflammation (swelling), or irritation, of the meninges."
are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. They cushion and protect the central nervous system.
(Nemours Foundation, 2014)
These symptoms generally last 5 to 7 days.
Those with healthy immune systems usually recovery completely.
Antibiotics may be given until a diagnosis of viral meningitis is confirmed.
Treatment once antibiotics withdrawn:
Fluids through a vein (IV).
Generally doesn't require hospitalization.
Medications to treat symptoms.
Plenty of rest.
Facilities with Meningitis Treatment
Many hospitals have meningitis treatment available to patients.
The top treatment hospitals according to Newsmax:
1. Johns Hopkins Hospitals
2. Mayo Clinic
3. Cleveland Clinic
4. Massachusetts General Hospital
5. UCLA Medical Center
1974: First polysaccharide vaccine for meningococcal meningitis is approved, but only protects against 1 of the 5 serogroups.
1978: First meningococcal vaccine to protect against 4 of 5 serogroups is licensed in the United States.
1982: U.S. Army begins vaccinating all recruits against meningococcal disease.
1990s: Medical community recognizes that young adults are at higher risk for meningococcal disease.
2000: The Advisory Comittee on Imunization Practices (ADCIP), a part of the CDC, recommends all college and university students and parents be informed of risk of meningococcal disease and the availability of the vaccine.
2005-10: FDA licenses meningococcal conjugate vaccines that help protect against 4 of the 5 serogroups.
ACIP recommends routine vaccination against meningococcal disease at the 11- to 12-year-old checkup.
Build up of fluids between the skull and brain.
build up of fluid in skull, causing brain swelling.
Most likely in developing countries.
Every year, bacterial meningitis epidemics affect more than 400 million people living in the 21 countries of the "African meningitis belt".
Over 800 000 cases were reported in the last 15 years (1996–2010).
10% resulted in deaths.
10–20% developing neurological sequelae (affects the nervous system)
The highest number of cases were reported by Burkina Faso (6,145 including 863 deaths) followed by Nigeria (4,699 cases including 322 deaths) and Chad (3,058 cases including 231 deaths).
(Novartis Vaccines, Inc, 2010)
(Novartis Vaccines, Inc, 2010)
Most frequent in African-Americans.
Most common in males.
Effects in the U.S.
According to the CDC, 1,000 to 2,600 people contract meningococcal disease each year in the United States.
One in 10 of these cases results in death.
From 1992 to 1993 there were a total of 8 identified outbreaks of meningococcal disease.
In the 11 years before, there had only been 13 outbreaks.
Thirty-nine states and the District of Columbia have one or more laws related to meningococcal meningitis.
Four states and the District of Columbia, require secondary school children to receive the vaccine.
Fourteen states require middle and high schools to distribute information on meningitis to their students, with some states requiring a report of the student’s immunization status.
Fifteen states and the District of Columbia require students attending colleges and universities (e.g. living in storms) to receive the vaccine or sign a waiver.
Twenty-six states require colleges and universities to distribute meningitis information to students, with some states requiring a report of the student’s immunization status.
Vaccines are available to travelers visiting high-risk zones, although the risk of meningitis for tourists is low.
As long as regulations are kept and cleanliness remains at an acceptable level, issues should not occur in the United States.
Due to lack of cleanliness in other countries epidemics are more likely.