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petrology overview

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by

jen nader

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of petrology overview

Petrology
petrology overview
rock=aggregate of minerals
3 types; Igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary

Igneous
created from a melt-generally a chemical change- where rocks melt and recrystallize
classification is based on textures and mineral compostion
Sedimentary
process of changing rocks due to weathering (breakdown of rock) and erosion (movement of weathered material), and compaction of these sediments and cementation with CaCO3 or SiO2
Metamorphic
deformation due to heat and pressure-
low heat, high pressure (high deformation) or
high heat, low pressure (low deformation)


rock cycle
textures
1.
aphanetic-can't be seen with the naked eye (crystal grains)
2. phaneritic-can be seen with the naked eye (crystal grains)
3.porphorytic-matrix aphanetic with large clusters of phaneritic pieces
4. pegmatitic- crystals of minerals larger than thumb
5. glassy-vitreous, glossy, due to quick cool
6.amygdoloidal-having infilled vesicle with another mineral
7. vesicular-having holes
8.scoreacious-frothy rough texture with vesicles that extend over the surface

Types of sedimentary rocks
clastic-based on grain size
very fine-clay
fine-silt
coarse-sand
moderate-arkose
pebble-conglomerate
boulder
types continued
chemical-due to a chemical process or organic material being present
evaporate-due to the evaporation of water
biochemical-organic material such as decaying flora present
reactive-effervescence in presence of acid
Types of metamorphosis
Regional-large scale high pressure, low heat, creates foliated rocks (schist, granite)

Contact-small local scale, creates a "bake zone" around the rock, high heat (not enough to melt) and low pressure-creates non-foliated rocks
Mineral composition
Mafic-iron, magnesium rich, dense, dark colored, high melting points, rich blacks, reds, dark greens(olivine)

Felsic-light colors,light weight, Potassium, Sodium rich, low melting points(microcline)
review
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