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Life Cycle Assessment

A cradle to cradle life cycle assessment of a sushi meal enjoyed in Kingston, ON.
by

Matt Lloyd

on 30 March 2011

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Transcript of Life Cycle Assessment

Life Cycle Assessment:
Sushi Meal Green Tea Ginger Plates and
Napkins Fish Rice Rice Raw materials:
Rice Seeds or seedlings
Herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers Humans consume 270 x10^6 tonnes of paper annually worldwide.

Largest manufacturing industry in Canada, worth $14 billion. Deforestation accounts for 20% of CO2 emissions worldwide. The Paper Industry Raw Materials Paper Napkins Rice is usually packaged in either cardboard ot plastic, both of which are recyclable Deforestation Waste Produced:
Straw
Hulls
Discarded rice brain
Runoff FISH Soy Sauce Mechanical Pulping High yield process, 95% of wood waste from lumber will be turned into pulp. Most processes cannot be changed due to how delicate it is (multiple fermentation cycles)
Raw materials can be grown locally
Farming can also be more natural (use of less fertilizers) Crop cycling can reduce soil degradation, and can replenish the soil naturally
Sauce can be made in a closer location to where things are grown and closer to where it is needed (less transport)
Container can be glass instead of plastic and can also be made from recycled materials Waste • Chopstick measurements:
o Length= 203-230 mm
o Width= 12-13 mm
o Thickness= 4.0-4.8 mm
• Only very fine-grained wood is suitable
• Majority of disposable chopsticks are sold in Japan (119, 413 tons)
• Average chopstick price bought in bulk ($0.034)
• 20 billion pairs of chopsticks made annually Solid Waste: skin, viscera, fish heads and carcasses (fish bones)
Recycled as fish food or treated as municipal waste
Liquid Waste: bloodwater, water discharge from cleaning
Generally disposed of through municipal sewage systems
Dish and Teacup •The aspen wood is cut into blocks at the site where selected
•Manufacturing Process uses (70-78 KW)
•>60% of the block wood becomes waste Life Cycle Analysis of Different Kilns Suggestions:
oUse local raw materials bamboo (China)
o Cut down on disposable chopsticks reusable plastic chopstick o Make disposable chopsticks from wood obtained from forest thinning and not only fine grained wood. Canada has become the world leader in using less virgin pulp (i.e. non-pulpwood) The refining process is extremely water intensive •Aspen wood (most used wood)
•Other wood used:
o Birch (2nd most used)
o Bamboo
•Popularity
o fast growth rate and ability to regenerate from sprouts
o reforestation is much cheaper after harvesting
o no annual planting or sowing needed
•Waste: only ¼ of the wood clear-cut is used remaining is left to rot or burn
•Aspen wood and white birch trees are only located in North America. Waste most waste comes from de-inking and bleaching of recycled products Dominant kiln fuel source in China is coal or scavenged fuel sources and low-efficency kilns are fairly common
In traditional coal fired kilns, heat is distributed to bake the final products. However, heat is also transferred to kiln
Significant loss of heat in traditional kilns results in huge energy consumption (coal, firewood) and GHG (CO2) emission. Recycling Wood-to-plates cutting machine: 1.12 KW
Length defining machine: 0.75 KW
Chopstick-shaping duplex machine: 3-7KW
Grinding Machine: 2.2 KW
Packing Machine: 0.45 KW
Multifunction knife grinder: 0.37 KW
Buzz saw: 3 KW
Drying chamber: 53.2 KW
Log saw: 10 KW
Antiseptic equipment: 2 KW
Total: 78 KW Wasabi Sauce only 70% of paper napkins are recyclable.
However recycled products are a component of paper napkins. Chopsticks Reduces CO2 emissions by 21.1 million tonnes per year 34% of landfill emissions are from paper products Improvements Decrease napkin weight.
Increase amount of recyclables.
Decrease transportation distances.
Use paper napkins in restaurants and cloth napkins in the home.



Straw which results from harvesting is used as bedding for livestock Traditional Coal-Fired Kilns Fiber-Lined Kilns Modern kilns use natural gas as fuel and a computerized system to allow control over temperature change
Newly designed fiber-lined kiln helps enhance ceramics processing and firing lowers CO2 emission by about 50% and cuts energy cost
Investment costs are usually recovered within one to three years, However involves using natural gas rather than coal Mulch used to recondition farming soil
is produced using hulls China is the top producer of rice with a paddy production of 166,000,000 metric tons annually Traditional Kiln Livestock feed is produced using the
oil from discarded rice brain Final product must travel approximately 9,000km from China to British Columbia, Canada by sea freight and from British Columbia, the rice must travel 4,000km to Kingston by modern train transportation largest source of CO2 emissions
worldwide transport and need for cooling during transport
consumes large amounts of energy Sea freight emits 10 to 40g of CO2 per km (Approximately 25g of CO2 x 9,000km = 225,000g of CO2) Fiber-Lined Kiln alternatives waste can be separated through heating into
fish meal and oil. Meal used for pet food, oil used in
leather tanning Modern train emits 30 to 100g of CO2 per km (Approximately 65g of CO2 x 4,000km = 260,000g of CO2) biodiesel
local fishing 2kg of wild fish are needed as feed to produce 1kg of salmon Rice farming employs various irrigation and draing techniques that result in runoff containing pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers. This run off makes it's way into the natural water system and damages the ecosystems relying on that water source. 14% of the world's total methane emissions are a reult of the extensive water usage involved in rice farming These two severe environmental impacts can be solved by eventually creating a hybrid rice grain that does not require as much water during growth, is resistant to pests and disease and does not require fertilizer Green teas (sencha) Sun grown
needs water, expansive crop areas, workers. Processing: dried (limited oxidation),
mulched, and packaged Could present waste issues... Vegetables Tanya Kizovski, Daniel Olivera,
Will Smith, Jessica Steeves,
Paul Hoogstraten, Olga Kibitkin, and Matt Lloyd Only ~2g/100ml Most CO2 production occurs in transport
Way to fix it could be to grow wasabi in British Columbia instead of Japan
Packaging can also be switched to paper packets (full of powder) easier to recycle
Packaging can also be switched to glass (full of premixed paste)
Packaging material can also be recycled
Natural wasabi can also be used instead of making a fake wasabi (use of less food coloring, and less transport)
Total travel CO2 emissions if everything is imported: 838kg/ton Since wasabi is very sensitive, the nearest
place where it can be grown is Vancover, BC
this would conserve 307 kg of CO2/ton Total travel CO2 emissions if everything is imported: 838kg/ton Since wheat and soy beans can handle
various growing conditions, a soy sauce factory
could potentailly be opened in Toronto, this can reduce 794kg CO2/ton Glass bottles are easier to recycle, yet
plastic bottles are lighter to transport... British Columbia, Canada has 267 number of organic fruit, vegetable and greenhouse farms. The finished product is transported by truck from British Columbia to Kingston. Trucks emit 60g to 150g of CO2 per km. (3,600km x 105g of CO2 per km = 328,000g of CO2). In 2002, Canada exported $28.9 million worth of carrots In 2002, Canada exported $55 million worth of cucumbers
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