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Transcript of architecture
from the Latin architectura
ultimately from Greek άρχιτέκτων– arkhitekton
- άρχι- “chief”
- τέκτων- “builder”, “carpenter”, “mason”
both the process and product of planning, designing and construction.
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art.
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
What is Architecture?
According to Steven Holl; principal architect for Steven Holl Architects and is considered one of America’s most important architects; describes Architecture in 4 words:
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!
Have a nice day!
While artists work from the real to the abstract, architects must work from the abstract to the real. While art may legitimize itself as an object or an event, architecture dissolves into a blur of buildings. Architecture, under all of its constraints of engineering safety, function, climate responsibility and economy, sometimes transcends to inspire us with ideas in space and light—qualities achieved in the abstract.
Some artists qualify the difference between architecture and art as “use” versus “lack of use.” This characterization truncates “use.” What is the “use” of music if not to stir the spirit? Equally a “function” of architecture is to inspire with a construction of luminous spatial energy. Its highest “use” is to deeply move us.
Encountered by the body moving through space; architecture’s volumes, connected in a path of overlapping perspectives, surround us likemusic. Space is “listened to” with a step forward, a twist of the body, a tilt of the head. A wash of light dissolving in perspective propels the body forward, fromforeground tomiddle ground and onward, as adistant view becomes the new foreground. Interior and exteriorconverge. Drawing us from one location to the next,architecture is the art of space.
A work of architecture has an idea—an organic link between concept and form. Thisidea is a hidden thread connecting disparate parts with exact intention. Pieces cannot be subtracted or added without upsetting fundamental properties. The phenomena of space, light, material/detail—as understood by others—convey the art, whether or not the organizingidea is fully grasped.
ARCHITECTURE CAN MEAN:
A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures.
The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures.
The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures.
The practice of the architect, where architecture means the offering or rendering of professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture).
The term "architecture" has been adopted to describe the activity of designing any kind of system, and is commonly used in describing information technology.
The Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age, spanned from around 30,000 BC until 10,000 BC and produced the first accomplishments in human creativity. Due to a lack of written records from this time period, nearly all of our knowledge of Paleolithic human culture and way of life comes from archaeologic and ethnographic comparisons to modern hunter-gatherer cultures.
Primitive man lived and slept outside in the open air. His only shelter might have been the bough of a tree or a natural cave.
It is clear that the earliest humans created almost nothing.
The oldest examples of Paleolithic dwellings are shelters in caves, followed by houses of wood, straw, and rock.
This liberation was the first revolution in the story of humanity.
Man now became a producer, learning to produce and store food. Thereafter, he was comparatively freed from his previous nomadic existence.
With fields and herds to provide a fairly reliable source of food, and with neighbours to share the work, primitive men learned to live in a permanent village as part of a tribe.
The primitive people who plowed the soil took shelter under tree, which inspired hut that were made from branches, reeds and mud.
Shepherds who lived with their flocks would lie down under the shelter of animal skins. These, when raised on branches, became the first tents. Huts, natural caves, and tents were the three primitive types of human dwellings which inspired all later architectural development.
The Neolithic Age was also the period of
megalithic (meaning: great + stone)
structures which were usually erected for
religious or mystical purposes.
Orkney Skara Brae
Primitive architectural developments are something of a dead end. There has yet to be found a direct connection between these earliest manifestations and subsequent activities that took place in the eastern Mediterranean area many years later.
In a sense, there is an architectural missing link. Therefore, we call these first tentative developments prehistoric.
In Ancient Egypt and other early societies, people believed in the omnipotence of Gods, with many aspects of daily life carried out with respect to the idea of the divine or supernatural and the way it was manifest in the mortal cycles of generations, years, seasons, days and nights. Harvests for example were seen as the benevolence of fertility deities. Thus, the founding and ordering of the city and her most important buildings (the palace or temple) were often executed by priests or even the ruler himself and the construction was accompanied by rituals intended to enter human activity into continued divine benediction.
Ancient architecture is characterized by this tension between the divine and mortal world. Cities would mark a contained sacred space over the wilderness of nature outside, and the temple or palace continued this order by acting as a house for the gods. The architect, be he priest or king, was not the sole important figure; he was merely part of a continuing tradition.
The Great Pyramid of Giza
the earliest, simplest and most commonly used.
The most accomplished representative of the Doric order is the Parthenon.
Greek Architecture (1100-100 B.C.) in its most characteristic form is found in the temple, a low building of post-and-lintel construction.
In this type of construction, two upright pieces or posts are surmounted by a horizontal piece, the lintel, long enough to reach from one to the other.
This is the simplest and earliest types of construction, and is more commonly used than any other.
is more ornate, the column is taller and slender than the Doric.
It has a base, and the capital is ornamented with scrolls on each side unlike in the Doric, the freeze is continuous; not divided.
Ionic was introduced by architects from Asia Minor and was generally researched for smaller temples.
The Temple of Athena Nike
the most intricate and the favorite of Roman architect.
The Corinthian column, with the base and shaft resembling the Ionic tended to become more slender.
The distinctive feature is much deeper than the Ionic.
The Temple of the Sybil
Romans were famous for their advancement in architecture and engineering.
Roman architecture changed all this and advanced this by introducing new methods of architecture; The Columns and The Arches.
Romans built victory arches, buildings and aqueducts.
Three types of columns:
Used not just for their immense support capabilities but as well for their power to amaze and glorify.
The various elements of Gothic architecture emerged in a number of 11th- and 12th-century building projects, particularly in the Île de France area, but were first combined to form what we would now recognise as a distinctively Gothic style at the 12th century abbey church of Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis, near Paris. Verticality is emphasized in Gothic architecture, which features almost skeletal stone structures with great expanses of glass, pared-down wall surfaces supported by external flying buttresses, pointed arches using the ogive shape, ribbed stone vaults, clustered columns, pinnacles and sharply pointed spires. Windows contain beautiful stained glass, showing stories from the Bible and from lives of saints. Such advances in design allowed cathedrals to rise taller than ever, and it became something of an inter-regional contest to build a church as high as possible.
is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture.
In constructing churches, Renaissance architects adopted the domes from believing that ancient mathematicians equated circles with geometric perfection, architects used the circle to represent the perfection of God.
St. Peter's Basilica
is a Late Renaissance church located within Vatican City. Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and remains one of the largets churches of the world.
The word Baroque literally means a "misshapen pearl". This period of architecture was called Baroque because some considered the style very odd. Baroque architecture evolved out of Renaissance architecture in Italy. The two main architects of the Baroque era were Bernini and Borromini. Bernini's first medium was sculpture. He liked to incorporate a lot of sculpture into his buildings. A sculptor and mason, Francesco Burromini went to Rome in 1614, and trained under Bernini.
The facades consisted of many curves, often using the double curve (in at the sides, out in the middle). Baroque pediments (triangular area between the rooftop and the end of the roofs) were often highly decorated. The tips were sometimes turned into scrolls and gilded . In these two examples, St. Moise in Venice (on the right) has a more ornate facade than does St. Ignatius in Mainz, Germany; however the interior of St. Ignatius is almost Rococo.
St. Moise St. Ignatius
The most distinct shape of the Baroque style is the oval. The baroque architects used marble, gilt, and bronze in abundance on the interior. One often finds the interiors surrounded by numerous gilded puttos (little angels) as well as some life sized ones.
The ceilings and domes often contained large frescos or murals using what is known as "Trompe l'oeil" painting which is an art technique involving extremely realistic imagery in order to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects appear in three dimensions, instead of actually being a two-dimensional painting. The walls are often highly painted
The Baroque played into the demand for an architecture that was on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and, on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Church. By the middle of the 17th century, the Baroque style had found its secular expression in the form of grand palaces, first in France and then throughout Europe.
The Baroque style became more restrained in France. While lavish details were used, French buildings were usually symmetrical and orderly. The Palace of Versailles is an outstanding example. Baroque architecture emerged in England after the Great Fire of London in 1666. Architect Christopher Wren used restrained Baroque styling when he helped rebuild the city, his most famous accomplishment was St. Paul's Cathedral
Also referred to as “Late Baroque”, an 18th century movement and style, which affected several aspects of arts.
Developed in the early part of the 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque.
Rococo artists opted for a more jocular , florid, and graceful approach to Baroque art and architecture.
Rococo additionally played an important role in theater.
German Theater in Rococo style
19th Century Architecture
The nineteenth century is known as a period of eclecticism. Eclecticism, in architecture, implies freedom on the part of the architect or client to choose among the styles of the past that seems to him most appropriate.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
By the middle of the 19 th century, both the Greek and Gothic revivals were spent. Italian villas and Swiss chalets jostled Victorian Gothic churches and Victorian classic post offices. These styles were superficial and interchangeable.