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The Yanomami People
Transcript of The Yanomami People
Albert, Bruce. "The xapiripë spirits." Povos Indigenas no Brasil. Instituto Socioambiental (São Paulo), June 1999. Web. 11 May 2013.<http://pib.socioambiental.org/en/povo/yanomami/582>.
“Amazonia Baskets." -AMAZON BASKETS-. Arte Amazonia, n.d. Web. 05 May 2013.
Chagnon, Napoleon A. “Doing Fieldwork among the Yanomamo.”. Yanomamo:The firce people. 4th. Ed.New York: Holt, reinhart, and Winston, 1992.5-79. Print.
Chagnon, Napoleon. "Secrets of the Tribe." www.youtube.com. SidewaysFilm.Ltmd, May 2011. Web. 11 May 2013.
Engelbert, Victor. "A Once Hidden People." The World & I 19.5 (2004): 186,187,189,193,195. ProQuest. Web. 4 May 2013
Johannes Wibert, Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume VII South America, G.K Hall & Co, an imprint of Macmillan Inc, 1994, NY, Seattle Central Library, GN 307-E53
Rock star, Amazon chief bring hope to rain forest. Human Rights [serial online]. Winter92 1992;19(1):7-8. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 6, 2013
Lynksey, Thomas. Amazon Rainforest (No Music). www.youtube.com. Thomas Lynskey, 19 Jan. 2008. Web. 11 May 2013.
Tiffany S, Adams K. Anthropology's 'Fierce' Yanomami: Narratives of Sexual Politics in the Amazon. NWSA Journal [serial online]. Summer94 1994;6(2):169. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 6, 2013.
Ushiñahua, Charito. "Yanomami Indians: The Fierce People?" Yanomami Indians: The Fierce People? AMAZON-INDIANS.ORG, 2008. Web. 05 May 2013. http://www.amazon-indians.org/yanomami.html
Wenger, Brea. "Yanomamo Art - Cultural Anthropology @ KSU." Yanomamo Art - Cultural Anthropology @ KSU. Introduction to Culture Anthropology, n.d. Web. 05 May 2013. Nathalya Campbell, Ling Tan, Ly Hoang Khai Johnny, Yeasin Arafat, Zhang Peizhi The Yanomami People Location of Yanomami people Isolated from the world for as long as 5,000 years
Discovered in the early 1950’s
Undisturbed for next two decades
1973, Brazilian government built Perimetral Norte, a road near the territory of Yanomami which brought thousands of people there to mine gold. The gold rush lasted till 1976
1987, the second wave of gold rush started (That was illegal). Since then at least 2,000 Yanomami (roughly 10% of the overall population) was killed due to diseases (Engelbert). Brief History The Yanomami peoples live in several villages
Each village have their own shabono, which is similar to a hut .
The shabono has an opening in the middle for feasting and ceremonies. Each family has their own place under the roof (Ushiñahua) Housing The Yanomami are very dependent on Amazon Forest’s resources.
Hunting and fishing are their primary food resources
Recently, the Yanomami have started farming. Their main crops are plantains (large bananas) and cassava (Ushiñahua) Resources cassava plantains Traditionally, Yanomami peoples don’t wear clothes.
The Yanomamis people wear feathers and flowers as body decoration (Ushiñahua) Clothing The mate is committed to service and payment for the family of his contra-cted wife. This will consist of working in the field, constructing a canoe, and the provision of meat, the latter being the most significant symbolically and eco-nomically. Meat payment may be made every month, should he live in the same dwelling as the wife-giving family. This meat consists of a bird, fish, a monkey, the leg of a peccary or tapir, depending upon the availability of game. After the hunter catches game, he will enter the communal house carrying the prey on his back, will pass by the wife*giving family's hearth, and literally drop some meat in front of the fire without uttering a word. (Tiffany) Each yanomamo village is an autonomous political entity, free to make war or peace with other villages. (Wibert) Age, sex, and personal accomplishments are important in status differentiation. High status is acquired through valor in combat, accomplished oratory, and expertise in shamanism. High status cannot be inherited; it must be earned. (Wibert) The village headman is the dominant political leader and comes from the largest local patrilineage. When a village is large or when tow local descent groups are approximately equal in size, a village may have several headmen. To be successful leader, the heaman must rely on demonstrated skills in settling disputes, representing the interests of his lineage and dealing with allies and enemies. (Wibert) Conflicts typically arise from accusations of adultery, failure to deliver a betrothed woman, personal affronts, stinginess, or thefts of coveted garden crops such as tobacco and peach-palm fruits. (Wibert) Campbell's Function: Sociological The animals (yaropë) shelters are seen to be avatars of mythic human/animal ancestors of the first humanbeings(yaroripë) who ended up taking animal shape due to their uncontrolled behavior, an inversion of today's rules of living. In the entangled depths of the urihi, in its hills and its rivers, are numerous malefic beings (në waripë), who injure or kill the Yanomami like they were game, causing disease and death. On top of the mountains live the images (utupë) of the animal-ancestors transformed into shamanic spirits, xapiripë. (Albert) The xapiripë were abandoned by Omama to look after humans. . Hidden in the depths of the waters is the house of the monster Tëpërësiki, father-in-law of Omama, where the yawarioma spirits also live; their sisters seduce and young Yanomami hunters go mad, thereforepresenting them the gift and curse to pursue the Shamanic path (Chagnon) The initiation of shamans is painful and ecstatic. During initiation, which involves inhaling the hallucinogenic powder yãkõana (the resin or inner bark fragments of the Virola sp. tree, dried and pulverized) for many days under the supervision of older shamans, they learn to 'see/recognize' the xapiripë spirits and respond to their calls. (chignon) The xapiripë take shape of humanoid miniatures decorated with colorful and brilliant ceremonial ornaments. Their dance of introduction is compared to the noisy and exuberant arrival of richly decorated invited groups during an community reahu festival, in which all nearby tribes are invited. Above all, these spirits are shamanic 'images' (utupë) of forest entities. (Chagnon) 1:Women wear flowers behind their ears and their arms
2:Men wear headdresses and arm bands made from bird feathers
Yanomamo believe that their body art represent bonding and strengthens social ties
(Sociological function) Basket weaving-
Yanomami use a red berry called Onoto to decorate their basket, which is also creatively used for coloring and decorating their clothes as well as their bodies.
The patterns on the baskets are the symbol for their village. The pattern designs on the basket are abstract. The images are taken from the world around them, and also, often from their inner world, their dreams.
(Mystical function) Thank you!