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Transcript of Jean Piaget
* Tail Dog Dog The child is actively constructing a "Schema" about dogs The child experiences "Disequilibrium" The child "Assimilates" the information and returns to a state of "Equilibrium" The "Assimilation" process continues as the child expands her understanding of what a dog is by observing one in the park. * Ears
* Four Legs
* Tail Dog Dog The child experiences "disequilibrium." Her "schema" about dogs does not include: barking, furry, or licking "Bark" "Bark" Dog:
* Four Legs
*Licks? Dog? While the child is in a state of "disequilibrium"
she is actively constructing meaning. She is building "schema" or adding information to existing schema. The child seeks reinforcement from her parent Dog The parent affirms and reinforces the new information. "Assimilation" is occurring. "Disequilibrium" resolved. "Schema" is organized to incorporate new information *Fours Legs
*Licks Dog Dog Child return to a state of "equilibrium" Piaget theorized that cognitive development is about a child constructing a mental model of the world. According to Piaget, certain ways of thinking that are quite simple for an adult, are not so simple for a child. Piaget's Four States of Cognitive Development For example, Piaget asked a 9-year old:
"What is your nationality?-I am Swiss.-How come?-Because I live in Switzerland.-Are you also Genevan?-No, that's not possible I'm already Swiss I can't also be Genevan (Piaget, 1965/1995, p. 252) Because Piaget’s theory is based on biological maturation the notion of “readiness” is important. According to Piaget’s theory children should not be taught certain concepts until they have reached the appropriate stage of cognitive development.
Piaget believed educators must plan a developmentally appropriate curriculum that enhances logical and conceptual growth. He emphasized the critical role that experiences or interactions with the surrounding environment play on student learning.
Piaget has been influential in developing educational theory. He helped form the theory of Discovery Learning, which is the idea that children learn best through doing and actively exploring. Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. Before Piaget’s work, the common assumption in psychology was that children were merely less competent thinkers than adults. Piaget showed that children think in strikingly different ways than adults. Resources Piaget, Jean. (1972). The Psychology of the Child. Basic Books. Boeree, George, C. (2006). Jean Piaget. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html. McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget: Cognitive theory. http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html Piaget, Jean (Uploaded: 2010). Piaget on Piaget: Part 1. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1JWr4G8YLM. ...and other important stuff Can you be in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and the United States all at the same time? Educational Implications Other Implications Limitation of Piaget's Theory? Cognitive Development & Culture
Underestimating Children's Abilities
The Trouble with Stages
Do we all reach the four stage? A study showed that 50% of undergraduate students fail Piaget's "Formal Operational Tasks" Did you know? Vygotsky & Bruner saw development as continuous rather than in stages like Piaget did. Vygotsky even argued the Piaget ignored the effects that culture may have on development. Piaget’s methods of observation and clinical interviews are subjective some say because Piaget observed alone and generally observed his own children. Some critics claimed Piaget underestimated children’s abilities on his clinical tests because his tests were confusing and difficult to understand. Eggen & Kauchak. (2012). Educational Psychology: Windows on classroom(9th ed.). Prentice Hall. Stages & Characteristics:
Sensorimotor-Moves from reflex actions to goal-directed activity
Preoperational -Has difficulty seeing another person's point of view
Concrete Operational-Understands reversibility
Formal Operational-Becomes a scientific thinker (0-2 years) (2-7 years) (7-11 years) If Kelli is taller than Allie, and Allie is taller than Joe who is the tallest? (11-adults)