Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

As Level Organic Chemistry

No description
by

Maham Haider

on 5 May 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of As Level Organic Chemistry

As Level Organic Chemistry Reactions
Alkanes
Alkenes
Alkyne
Halogeno Alkanes
Alcohols
Carboxylic Acids
Esters
Carbonyl Compounds
Ethers
Nitrile
Amine
Amides
C C
C C
C C
Aldehyde
Ketone
Amide
Substituted Amide
Combustion
Alkane Oxygen Carbondioxide Water
Incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide and soot.
Reason for unreactiveness:
Non polar
Saturated
Free Radical Substitution
Condition: UV Light
Reagent: Halogen
Observation: Misty white fumes of HCl
Combustion
Reaction is same as alkanes.
Alkanes are never used as fuels becuase:
Used as raw material in chemical industry
Are more expensive
Cause more pollution due to higher carbon content
Electrophilic Addition
Because of high electron density in pi bond region (double bond) alkenes are attacked by electrophiles.
The double bond breaks and atoms are added along the alkene
Hydrogenation
Reagent: Hydrogen gas
Condition: 150 temperature
Catalyst: Nickel
Halogenation
Reagents: Halogen
Condition: Room temp and absence of UV light
Observation: decolourization of bromine etc
Hydrogen Halides
HI is most reactive, HCl is least reactive
Conditions: Room Temperature
Reagent: Hydrogen Halide
Hydration
Temperature: 250 to 300
Pressure: 60 to 80 atm
Catalyst: Phosphoric Acid
Mechanism of Electrophilic Addition
Oxidation
Reagent: Acidified KMnO4
Mild Oxidation: cold dilute KMnO4
Strong Oxidation: hot concentrated KMnO4
Mild Oxidation
Allkene Water Oxidizing agent Diol
Reagent: Cold, dilute KMnO4
Observation: Purple to colourless
Strong Oxidation
Reagent: Hot, conc KMnO4
The double bond ruptures
Nucleophilic Substitution
The carbon to which the halogen is attached has a partial positive charge due to electronegativity difference.
Nucleophiles attack the partial positive carbon and replace the halogen.
Hydrolysis
Reagent: NaOH or KOH
Condition: Heat under Reflux
Neucleophile: OH-
Ethanolic KCN
Reagent: KCN dissolved in ethanol
Condition: Heat under reflux
Neucleophile: CN- (cyanide ion)
Ammonia
Reagent: Concentrated NH3 (aq)
Condition: Closed vessel or vessel bomb
Neucleophile:
:NH3
Mechanism of Neucleophilic Substitution
SN-1 Mechanism
SN-2 Mechanism
Primary Alcohols undergo SN-2 mechanism
Secondary alcohols undergo both SN-1 and SN-2 mechanisms
Tertiary alcohols undergo SN-1 mechanism
The presence of 3 electron pushing groups helps in bond fission of C-X bond and in stabalizing the intermediate.
The intermediate is very unstable.
Elimination Reaction
Reagent: Ethanolic NaOH or KOH
Condition: Heat under reflux
AgNO3
Rate of precipitation is fastest in iodoalkane therefore it is the most reactive
With Sodium Metal
Dehydration
Alcohol Alkene + Steam
Dehydrating agent: Al2O3 or conc H2SO4
Dehydrating
agent
Esterification
Catalyst: Concentrated H2SO4
Condition: Heat under reflux
Reagent: Carboxylic acid
Conversion of Alcohols to Halogeno Alkanes
Chloroalkanes
Bromoalkanes
Iodoalkanes
Chloroalkanes
Observation: Misty white fumes of HCl
Use this to test presence of alcohol.
Tertiary alcohols react rapidly but primary and secondary are very slow
Bromoalkanes
To make PBr3 mix bromine with red phosphorous.
Iodoalkanes
CH3 CH2 OH + PI3 CH3CH2CH2I + H3PO3
PI3 can be made by mixing red phosphorous and iodine
Oxidization
Primary Alcohols
Mild
Strong
Secondary Alcohols
Tertiary Alcohols Resist Oxidation
Primary Alcohols
Mild Oxidation:
Alcohol is in excess
Strong Oxidation:
Oxidizing agent is in excess under heat.
Secondary Alcohols
More difficult to oxidize than primary alcohols.
Conditions:
Excess acidified K2Cr2O7
Heat under reflux
Hydrolysis of Nitriles
1. Acid Hydrolysis:
Carboxylic acid and ammonium salt is produced

2. Alkaline hydrolysis
Dilute alkali (NaOH) makes sodium salt and ammonia. Sodium salt is reacted with and mineral acid to get salt and carboxylic acid.
React like Typical Acids
Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen
Acid + Metal Oxide Salt + Water
Acid + Metal Hydroxide Salt + Water
Acid + Metal Carbonate Salt + Water + CO2
*First and last reactions are used for identification of carboxylic acid
To Produce Acyl Chlorides
Synthesis
Catalyst: H2SO4
Characterized by fruity smell
Condition:
Heat under Reflux
Hydrolysis of Esters
H+ can be dilute acid example HCl or H2SO4
Uses
Food Flavoring
Perfumes
Cosmetic creams
Used as an organic solvent
Reduction
Reducing agents:
NaBH4 (mild)
LiAlH4 (strong)
Nucleophilic Addition
Same for ketones and aldehydes
For reaction with NaCN, Na is attached to O
Test for Carbonyl Compounds
Orange precipitate is produced showing presence of either aldehyde or ketone.
Distinguishing between Aldehydes and Ketones
Aldehydes can oxidize and Ketones cannot.
This is used to distinguish between the two.
Oxidizing Agents
Reagents: acidified K2Cr2O7 or KMnO4
With aldehydes the colour will change:
Orange to green for K2Cr2O7
Purple to colourless for KMnO4
With Ketone there is no colour change
Fehling's Solution
Solution of Cu2+ ions and an alkali
Cu2+ ions are reduced to Cu+ ions and RED BROWN precipitate is formed
Tollen's Reagent
Mixture of NH3 and AgNO3
Also known as silver mirror test.
A silvery layer or plack precipitate is formed
Reaction with Acyl Chlorides
Amide linkage
Primary Amides
Amidase can be acid or base followed by an acid.
Condition is heat under reflux
Secondary or Substituted amides
Acid hydrolysis will have heat under reflux with acid
Alkaline hydrolysis will have heat under reflux with base followed by an acid.
Full transcript