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IPM Vineyard Plan May 2013

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Steven Madewell

on 3 September 2014

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Transcript of IPM Vineyard Plan May 2013


Branding – use of a name, term, symbol, or design – or a
combination of these – to identify a product
Brand name – narrower meaning
Integrated Pest Management Plan for the Proposed
"Increase and Diffusion" Vineyard

Vineyard Description
Scouting Calendar
with Major Regional Pests Identified
Scouting Calendar with Approximate Dates
Unique Vineyard, Unique Scouting Opportunities
Vineyard Scouting Calendar
Vinifera vs. species/hybrids
Vines must be grafted onto pest resistant rootstock
Grape Varieties
Trellising System
Vineyard Establishment IPM Steps
With Minimal
Hazardous Materials

Pest Management Goals Relative to Market Objective
Develop a Possible Long Term Revenue Stream From Sales of "exclusive" SI Wine
Pest Management Goals
Scouting Plan
Maintain cover crop between rows (ryegrass?)
Minimize plant growth in the row, especially around young vines
Mound soil around the graft union during the winter to minimize winter injury
• Cultural (preferred)
– Cultivation
– Mowing
– Mulching
– landscape fabric barriers

• Chemical (last resort)
– Preemergence herbicides
– Postemergenge herbicides
The Vines
are Planted, Now What?
Utilize Scouting Guides
and other Regional Resources
Benefits of Scouting
Insect Management Options
Additional Insect Control Methods Include:
Difference between goods and services
Tangible or intangible
Individual Products
Scouting Report
Site Characteristics
0.4 Acre Vineyard
Urban Landscape
Used as lawn since 1964
170-220 Frost Free Days
0 - 8 Degree slope
Ideal sun exposure
Washington Monument View (great public location and photo ops)
Potential varieties include:
LaCrescent (white hybrid)
Chardonnay (white vinifera)
Viognier (white vinifera)
Cabernet franc (red vinifera)
Chambourcin (red hybrid)
See USDA Soil Survey Report for Details
Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP)
Least expensive to install (donations?)
Most common in coastal regions
Effective spacing for small vineyard
Decrease fungal disease pressure
Attractive to visitors
Develop an Innovative Museum Experience by Maintaining a Working Vineyard Onsite
Crops at NMAI Garden
Market Objectives
Create an Attractive Living Exhibition Space for Museum Visitors
Prevention is Key
this IPM plan will manage the vineyard to prevent pest from becoming a threat
evaluate control methods for effectiveness and risk...less risky chosen first and selected with SI Gardens consultation
Establish Action Thresholds
when does a pest become an economic threat and require control measures
Monitor and Identify Pests
not all pests require control, some are beneficial
Vineyard to be scouted weekly by staff or interns from bud break through harvest
Electronic daily scouting reports (see below), photos of pests, and damage
will be sent to Vineyard Manager for review
SI Security will monitor
visitor activity via CCTV and patrols
Locate virus-free vines and
disease-resistant varieties
Reduce/eliminate residual herbicides
Test for pathogenic nematodes via UMD Plant Nematology Lab
Conduct soil samples (pH, nutrients)
"Smithson's Revenge" Table Wines
training on scouting methods
will be provided to
interested staff
and volunteers
increase knowledge of vineyard as it develops
maintain thorough records for future use and research
minimize costs through early detection and control
Calendar developed by Michigan State University is the benchmark for many Maryland growers
Scouting plans such as these provide a sound starting point. Regional resources and our collective vineyard experiences will inform our evolving scouting plan over time.
It may be possible for the scouts to provide hands-on interpretive programs for visitors as they monitor. This would add an opportunity to engage visitors in the vineyard and demonstrate the vineyard's ongoing value.
Insect Management


Take action against an insect pest only after:
You are certain the insect is present
The insect poses a threat to the crop
Action threshold:
the pest density that requires control
to avoid economic damage
Monitoring methods
Know the insect’s life cycle and activity in
relation to vine phenology
Protect beneficial insects that prey
on plant pests
Create habitat to attract beneficials
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
Praying Mantis
Certified Organic Vineyard
in Washington, DC

not quite organic.....
but close...
Fungal diseases are tough on grapevines in this region and will be the most
difficult pests to
Grapes Produced in a

Weed control (weeds may harbor pests)
Mating disruption with pheromones
􀂃Mass trapping
(with or without pheromones)

􀂃Pesticides used only as a last resort

􀂃 Fungi

􀂃 Viruses
Grapevine Disease Types
Control of
Bacterial Disease
Can be prevented by protecting the bark above ground (especially at graft union). CG bacteria infect the vine through wounds in bark from winter injury or mechanical injury, or insect damage.
Crown Gall
Pierce's Disease
This bacteria is rare in our region, but could present a problem since infected vines usually die. The bacteria is transmitted via sharpshooter leafhoppers and spittle bugs.
Chemical controls have no effect on bacterial infections!
Control of Prevalent Fungal Disease
Proper Canopy Management is Essential
Good canopy management promotes early ripening and decreases fungal diseases of fruit
– Allows sunlight to penetrate canopy
– Increases air circulation and decrease humidity in canopy
– Promotes early drying of leaves and clusters after dew or rain
Avoid excessive fertilization, which can make canopy management more difficult
Leave no debris in the vineyard for pests to overwinter.
This is especially important for fungal pests.

􀂃 Powdery mildew
Downy mildew
􀂃 Phomopsis cane & leaf spot
􀂃 Botrytis bunch rot
Black rot
Fungal Diseases
Pre-bloom sprays for the mildews may include:
Sterol inhibitors such as Rally 40WSP, Rubigan 1EC, Vintage SC, Procure 50WS, Elite 45DF
Mettle 125ME or Strobilurins such as Abound 2.08F, Sovran 50WG
Flint 50WG plus Sulfur, JMS Stylet Oil, Quintec 2.08F, Endura 70WG, or
Potassium salts
Fungicides will likely be necessary.
It is critical to control primary infections early in the season.
Pre-bloom sprays are important to keep powdery mildew and downy mildew from becoming established in the vineyard.
Primary Pest Challenge...Controlling the Mildews

Weed Strategy
Remove existing turfgrass on site
with repeated tillage
Apply a non-selective herbicide such as glyphosate
Planting the Vines
Weed Control Options
To avoid, DO NOT USE:
The same herbicide from year to year.
Herbicides that are of the same chemical group.
Herbicides that have the same
Herbicide Resistance
Herbicide products are not effective in
controlling all weeds.

Therefore, the continued use of a product will favor weeds tolerant to that herbicide and leads to a change in the species making up a population (“herbicide resistance”).
Grapevines are most sensitive to weed competition during the first few years of growth. Weedy vineyards may require several more years to become economically productive.
Be careful not to injure vines with chemicals, or to mechanically damage the vine trunk or roots. As grapevines become established, competition from weeds is lessened as
shade from the vine canopy reduces
weed growth.

Fat Free
Prevention of
Meet the Smithsonian's Vertebrate Pests
Vertebrate Enemy No. 1
Since this vineyard is located in an urban area, common vertebrate pests such as deer, turkeys, rabbits, and voles will not reach the economic threshold.
Birds are expected to be the primary vertebrate pest. However, the urban location may present opportunities for pests not prevalent in rural vineyards, such as rats and squirrels.
The preferred method of controlling bird pests in this location is netting. UV resistant netting should be installed on the trellis after the third full year. The netting should be installed with anchor hooks allowing the netting to be raised and lowered throughout the season as needed.
To access the latest version of this IPM plan, please click on the link below, or search the phrase "IPM vineyard plan" at Prezi.com.
This IPM plan is intended to serve as the starting point for an ever-improving and evolving system that will effectively control pests in Smithsonian Vineyard at the National Museum of American History.
Blood, Sweat, and Felco Pruners!
Please contact me to share any ideas, suggestions, or questions at madewells@si.edu!
Thank You!
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