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Religion - Temples, Households gods, Foreign cults, Tombs.
Transcript of Religion - Temples, Households gods, Foreign cults, Tombs.
Foreign Cults and Tombs. Gods and religious observances were part of daily life, evdience suggests that this was true for Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pompeians and Herculanians recognised many gods, they whorshipped there gods in a variety of ways. Both in public and in the privacy of their homes. The Roman writer Cicero describes the importance of the home in religion:
The most sacred, the most hallowed place on earth is the home of each and every citizen. There are his sacred hearth and his household gods, there the very centre of his worship, religion and domestic ritual. Each house in Pompeii and Herculaneum had small shrines
called a Lararium they also had small statues of the lares.
Lares were the household gods who protected the home and
the family. Sometimes an image of the master (Genius) would be included in the painitng. Each day the master of the household (Paterfamilias) would gather his family and slaves around the lararium and would make an offering to the lares and say a prayer for the protection and prosperity of the household. Lararium in the House of the Vettii
(The Genius between two Lares) In addition to daily offerings, there were many
ceremonies celebrated each month, such as births, coming of age, weddings and special anniversaries. Further household gods were Vesta,
the godess of the hearth, and the Panates,
the guardian spirits of the pantry. Women held priestess positions only in the cult religions Household Gods Temples Foreign Cults Tombs Temples in Pompeii and Herculaneum had two main functions:
- to house the images of the gods and objects associated with their worship
- to be the place where correct rituals were carried out by the priests to honour the gods The Temple of Isis
located in Pompeii and dedicated to the worship of the Egyptian goddess Isis
worshippers met at the temple twice a day, once at dawn at celebrate the rebirth os Osiris and in the early afternoon for the water ceremony The Temple of Apollo
located in Pompeii and dedicated to the worship of the Roman/Greek god Apollo
Apollo's sister, Diana was also honoured at the temple Alters to the lares were put on the street for the devotions of the poor, slaves or travellers.These were called the lares compitales, 'those of the crossroads one of the best preserved temples in Pompeii
inscriptions tell us that the temple was restored after the earthquake in 62 AD
inside there were halls dedicated for public ceremonies
a small room contained the water from the Nile River, and it was used in purification ceremonies It was clear that the gods played crucial rolls in the political, social and economic lives of the people in Pompeii and Herculaneum The Temple of Jupiter
dominated the forum in Pompeii
every January, important citizens gathered to celebrate the New year
the priests sacrificed a bull for the safety of the state, they were the only ones allowed to perform the rituals Although Christianity was spreading throughout the Roman Empire, there was no evidence that Christianity had been introduced in the two cities Tombs were elaborately decorated
the size and grandeur depicted the wealth, career, contribution to civic service, and the religious beliefs of the deceased A mosaic found in a house at Pompeii shows that death was openly accepted. Death was marked by a rite called conclamatio, and the relatives of the deceased would cry out their names
The bodies were washed, oiled and preserved by the women.
A coin was placed under the tongue to pay the ferryman, Charon, who transported the soul into the underworld.
The body was then laid out in the atrium for visitors to show their respects Cremation was also used.
after the person was cremated, a banquet ws held near the tomb
urns containing the ashes were placed in niches within the tomb
then 9 days of mourning will commence and after, another banquet would be held Greeks Egyptians Devotion to Greek Gods was common in Pompeii before the eruption.
Hercules, Dianysus and Apollo were openly worshipped as seen through a collection of temples, statues and frescoes found in Pompeii and Herculaneum.
There are a number of greek temples including the temple of Apollo and the temple of Bacchus each situated in or near Pompeii.
Hercules is believed to have been the founder of Herculaneum, as there are a number of statues and frescoes depicting the god, however no temple has yet been excavted. The cult of the Egyptians goddess, Isis, was a widespread religion in Pompeii and Herculaneum, the temple of Isis is situated near the theatre.
The cult was open to both sexes though nearly one third of worshippers mentioned in inscriptions are females.
There is a considerable amount of evidence of the presence of this cult in Herculaneum but no temple has been found so far. Others Through cult objects found in Pompeii, the presence of the cult of Sabazius has been suggested.
There is various evidence for the existence of Judaism including graffiti of Judaic names, frescoes and the presence of Jews in nearby areas.
There is no evidence supporting that Christianity was practised.