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Cord blood stem cells save lives

Life-saving treatment

Denis Al Khalili

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of Cord blood stem cells save lives

Research should be oriented towards prolonging their storage and enhancing their expansion... Cord stem cells are not exposed to the toxins and radiations (we experience in everyday life)

Cord blood stem cells are being used in the treatment of 40 medical conditions with over 72 potential disease targets Cord blood stem cells are much more tolerant to HLA tissue mismatching than bone marrow therefore leading to lower rate of GVHD Cord blood stem cells have a greater ability to differentiate into other cell types

These cells have longer growth potential and have been shown to have a greater rate of engraftment In theory, in HIV patient,
an allogenic umbilical cord stem cell vaccine may be used to replace the HIV infected hematopoietic stem cells. In elderly patients with a high risk of graft-versus-host disease
In autoimmune diseases, where there has been some success with autologous transplantation and the low risk of graft-versus-host disease makes cord blood transplantation attractive. Future applications
They also avoid the ethical debate surrounding embryonic stem cells because cord blood cells do not involve the destruction of an embryo. In addition, cord blood stem cells hold an advantage over adult stem cells because they do not have the DNA mutations that the 'older' adult stem cells may have developed over time. Cord blood cells hold advantages over other types of stem cells. Umbilical cord blood stem cells are considered the 'freshest' and 'youngest' stem cells available. How Do Cord Blood Stem Cells Differ From Other Stem Cells? Cord blood that is taken from the umbilical cord after the baby is born contains stem cells.
Cord blood stem cells can grow a complete immune system of blood cells. These are building blocks of the blood and immune systems.
“Hematopoietic” stem cells are Adult Stem Cells and are not to be confused with “Embryonic” stem cells. The power to heal Life-saving treatment

Cord blood stem cells save lives Unlimited source of stem cells from biological waste

Collection of cord stem cells is painless

Collection of cord stem cells is risk free to mother and baby Conclusions Cellular vehicles for gene therapy Umbilical cord stem cells can be stably transduced using Retroviral vectors for necessary genetic correction and can be used for transplantation Malignant diseases Acute leukemia- Cord blood from an unrelated donor was found to be useful for adults with acute leukemia who lack an HLA-matched bone marrow donor
(Wall et. al., 2005) Malignant diseases Acute leukemia- Cord blood from an unrelated donor was found to be useful for adults with acute leukemia who lack an HLA-matched bone marrow donor
(Wall et. al., 2005) UCMS cells transplanted into the brains of hemiparkinsonian rats that were not immune-suppressed.
Neural transplantation showed to ameliorate functional and cognitive deficits in animal models of neurological disorders and has reached clinical trials in Parkinson disease, Huntington disease and stroke. Hemoglobinopathies Fanconi anemia- Umbilical cord blood cells from HLA matched sibling used. The engraftment is slow. There is no graft-versus-host disease. Hurler syndrome - Severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I, causes progressive deterioration of the CNS and death in childhood.
Transplantation of umbilical cord blood stem cells improved neurocognitive performance and decreased somatic features of Hurler's syndrome Ischemic vascular disease Buerger’s disease - characterized by a combination of acute inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of the arteries and veins in the hands and feet leading to pain, ulceration and necrosis of extremities
Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted to HLA matched patients
After transplantation ischemic rest pain disappeared, necrotic skin lesions were healed within 4 weeks. Regenerative medicine in cardiology Transplanted UCSC provide benefit in cardiac function recovery after acute myocardial infarction in rats (Kai Hong et. al., 2007)
Some UCSC express cardiac troponin-T, von Willebrand factor, and smooth muscle actin, indicating regeneration of damaged myocardium by cardiomyocytic, endothelial, and smooth muscle differentiation of UCDS cells in the infarcted myocardium Applications Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) of umbilical cord origin is curative for malignant and nonmalignant diseases like Fanconi’s anemia, aplastic anemia, leukemias, metabolic and other congenital disorders.
HLA mismatch may be better tolerated in the UCBT setting than Bone Marrow Transplantation.
This phenomenon, which seems to facilitate grafting and boost the rate of hematopoiesis, is the subject of ongoing research. Stem cell differentiate into:

White blood cells: vital for fighting infections and safeguarding the body
Red blood cells: important for transporting oxygen to cells
Platelets: crucial for clotting Umbilical cord blood is also known as placental blood.
It is the blood that flows in the circulation of the developing fetus in the womb. What is cord blood? Researchers are investigating different ex vivo methods for amplifying and stockpiling hematopoietic stem cells. If successful, these approaches, along with increased use of placentas and umbilical cords as donors, will offer new hope for patients unable to find a close HLA match. Clinical trials using cord-blood units from two different donors to increase the number of stem cells infused in a single transplant show that cells from one unit may dominate the other, although both can attack the host's immune system
Using More Than One Cord-Blood Donor

Collection is invasive and painful. Must be performed in a hospital surgical setting.

Due to the maturity of the stem cells, it requires a greater HLA match to perform a transplant.

Serious GVHD occurs in 60% of all unrelated Bone Marrow transplants

Bone Marrow is dependent on donor participation.

Collection is non-invasive, painless, and poses no risk to the donor.

Greater HLA compatibility due to decreased functionality of fetal lymphocytes.

Graft versus Host Disease (GVHD) is reduced to 10% due to the absence of antibodies in the stem cells.

Units are processed and ready for transplant.

Significantly less expensive Cord blood Vs Bone Marrow The primary type of stem cells in cord blood can cure many life-threatening illnesses. These stem cells and a different kind found in cord tissue may also be able to treat serious injuries. They "know" how to find injured cells and tissue in the body and initiate a healing process.
Cord Blood Stem Cells,
in Particular, Are: After the baby’s birth, the left over blood in the umbilical cord and placenta is called cord blood.
This blood is a rich source of stem cells. Stem cells are the body’s master cells.
Stem cells that are found in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood are called “Hematopoietic Stem Cells” Ass. M-r D-r Aspazija Sofijanova

Director of the University Children's Hospital
Chief of the Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care
Skopje, R. Macedonia Umbilical cord stem cells have unique advantages over the adult stem cells found in bone marrow. They're younger, more versatile, and have not been exposed to environmental factors. SMART POWERFUL UNIQUE Cord Blood Bone Marrow Cell-based therapy is one of the more recent approaches in regenerative medicine that aims at replacing or repairing organs and tissues. Cell therapy can be defined as «The use of living cells to restore, maintain or enhance the function of tissues and organs». STEM CELLS
TISSUE ENGINEEERING Different cell types have been used, such as skeletal myocytes, which have been injected into infarcted cardiac scar tissue, or neuronal cells inoculated into the brains of patients with nervous disorders. Alternative approaches include extracorporeal organ replacement for kidney and liver failure, the potential transplantation of xenogenic organs and cells and stem cell therapy. Metabolic storage diseases Neurological disorders Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions Future applications Future applications Future applications
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