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# Landforms

FOSS Module 5 Investigations
by

## Melissa Nagode

on 14 March 2014

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#### Transcript of Landforms

Landforms
Investigation 1
Investigation 1, Part 1: Schoolyard Models, p. 1
Investigation 2
IV. Procedure
1.
Cover
the table
2. Place stream table with
hole
over the end of the table
3. Place the
catch basin
on a chair below the drainage hole
4.
Bulldoze
the earth materials (sand) to 20 cm from the end.
5. Balance a
ruler
on the top so that a .5 L cup can sit above the earth material.
6. Balance the
standard
water source cup on the ruler and edge of the tray.
7. Start the
timer
pour one liter of water through the water source cup.
8. Observe and
record
the events and time until the liter of water runs out.

Investigation 3: Go with the Flow
Investigation 4: Build A Mountain
I. Question
How is a model used to represent something in the real world?
II. Hypothesis
If we __________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
III. Materials
 Craft Sticks  Gram Blocks
 1 Overlay Grid  Wooden Pieces
IV. Procedure
1. Walk around the building and take “
mental pictures
” of the shape of the building and what it would look like from
above
.
2. Use the craft sticks, blocks and other wooden pieces on the overlay sheets to make a
model
of the schoolyard.
3. Draw in each
feature
of your schoolyard model, by tracing around each piece.
4. Remove the pieces one by one and
label
what each piece represented as you remove it.
Investigation 1, Part 1: Vocabulary

1.
Map
:
a drawing of an area, usually as though you were looking straight down on it.

2.
Cartographer
:
a person who makes maps.

3.
Grid
:
a network of vertical and horizontal lines that form squares

Response Sheet – Schoolyard Models
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

Adri and a group from her Girl Scout troop were studying a local park to find out the best place to put the new playground. They needed to present their plan to the city council. They hoped that the council would approve their plan.

She and her friends couldn’t decide whether making a model of the playground or drawing a map would be the best way to present their ideas.
What do you think Adri and her friends should do? Write your ideas in the space below about whether to include a map, a model, or both in their presentation.

Investigation 1, Part 2: Mapmaking, p. 6
I. Question
How can you change a map without change the information given?
II. Hypothesis
If we __________________________________________________________
III. Materials
 Overlay Grid  Map Grid  Colored Pencils
IV. Procedure
1.
Transfer
2. Then
color it
with colored pencils, or crayons.
3. Then use your colors, symbols, and shapes to create your
KEY
.
What features can be included in the map?
Buildings, streets, sidewalks, parking lots, fields,
NOT - people, cars, anything that is moveable
Aerial Photo
Close up Map
Far Away Map
VI. Conclusion
My hypothesis that ...
________________
V. Data
:
Why should maps include a key?

Why do maps and keys have symbols and colors?
VI. Conclusion
My hypothesis that...
______________________________
Inv. 5 Quiz Review
Scale: 1:1000 cm
How big is the playground in real life if its 15 cm on the map?

Scale: 1:250 cm
How long is the driveway if its 10 cm on the map?
Will the same house on a larger scale
(1:100 cm)
or a smaller scale
(1:1000)
map look larger on the paper?
Which of your maps make Webster look larger?
Inv. 1 Response Sheet Key
4-suggests that using both a model and a map would provide the most information for the council; says that the model would provide a three-dimensional view of the new playground and the land around it, while the map could provide more detail and the council could take copies away with them.
3-suggests using a model or a map; gives clear reasons why that choice is the best
2-suggests a model or a map; does not give clear reasons why that choice is the best.
1-attempst to answer the question, but choice may be unclear; mentions reasons for choice of maps or models, but they are irrelevant to the question.
0-does not complete the task, or gives information that has nothing to do with what was asked.

Investigation 1: Science Stories – Maps and How They Are Made, and Ancient Maps

1. What is an inventory map?
A map that shows graphic details, such as seats in a stadium, buildings in a city, or a concert hall map.

2. What is a thematic map?
A map that shows populations or natural resources, such as a weather map.

3. What is a mobility map?
A map that shows locations of streets and roads, such as a road map.

4. What is a reference map?
A map that shows physical features, such as mountains, rivers, and lakes—a topographic map, for example.

5. How is the GPS navigation system used?
It is used to pinpoint your location; some automobiles now have GPS systems.

6. What were some of the problems with ancient maps?
They were inaccurate, lacked detail.

7. When were more accurate maps first made?
In the 17th century.

I. Question
How do you think the Grand Canyon form?

II. Hypothesis
If I ____________________________________________________________________

III. Materials
 Tray with earth materials (sand)  Water source cup
 Ruler  Wood Angle
 1 L container  Hand Lens
 Meter Tape  Timer
V. Data
Time (sec.) Events
0 seconds Start pouring the water.
10 seconds Pool of water formed on top of the plateau
1 minute Plateau broke; River and beach formed
4 minutes Plateau edge slipped
Complete your
Conclusion
and the
Investigation 2.1: Erosion
1.
Drainage Basin:
a system of rivers and streams that drains an area like the Colorado Plateau.

2.
Erosion:
wears away earth materials by water, wind, or ice.

3.
Landform:
a shape or feature of the earth’s surface, like a delta or canyon.

4.
Canyon:
a V-shaped valley eroded by a river or stream.

5.
Delta:
is a fan shaped (triangular) deposit of earth materials at a mouth of a stream.

6.
Plateau:
a large, nearly level area that has been lifted above the surrounding area.
Investigation 2: Vocabulary, p. 13
Investigation 2 Science Story Questions, p. 14
1. What features about the Grand Canyon does the author give on page 9 that explains why it is such a famous place? Why do those features make it famous?

2. Reread page 10. What were the earliest inhabitants of the Grand Canyon known as?

3. What is the oldest evidence of humans in the Grand Canyon?

4. What Native Americans inhabit the Grand Canyon now?

5. Reread pages 11-12. Why did the author spend both pages talking about John Wesley Powell and only 1 paragraph talking about Captain Garcia Lopez de Cardenas?

6. When talking about Captain Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, what does the author want you to understand about the Grand Canyon?

7. Reread pages 13-14. Describe the difference between the environment of the Grand Canyon while the Glen Canyon Dam was in place and after.

8.How did this affect the plants and animals that lived there?
IV. Procedure
Part 1:
1. Set up the stream tables with the catch basin on a chair below.
2. As you watch 1L of water flow through the stream table observe.
Part 1
Questions in the data section.

Part 2:
1. Perform a shake test
half full
of earth material from the stream table.
b. Pour
water
into the vial until its almost full then cap.
c.
Shake
for 5 seconds. This represents water moving in the stream.
d. Stop shaking. This represents the water slowing down and stopping.
Part 2
questions in the data section.
Part 3:
1. Run another 1L
through
the stream table and add food
coloring
to the water to see more clearly where the water goes.
Part 3
questions in the data section.
Investigation 2.2: Deposition, p.16-16
I. Question
Where did the eroded material end up?

II. Hypothesis
III. Materials
 Tray with earth materials  Standard water source
 Ruler  Wood angle  1L container
 Hand lenses  Meter tape  Vial with cap
 Plastic cup  Cotton swab
V. Data

Part 1:
What changes happen with the water?
Where did most of the earth material end up? Where’s the clay?

Part 2:
Why do you think the sand was deposited on the bottom and the clay on the top?
Where does the water slow down first in the stream table? How do you know?
How does the shake test explain why the sand and clay were deposited in different places in your stream table?
Where did the material that was in the Grand Canyon go? Be specific.
Is a canyon created by Erosion or Deposition?
Is a delta created by Erosion or Deposition?

Part 3:
What do you observe about how the water flows?

1.
Deposition:
the process by which eroded materials settle out in another place.

2.
Sediment:

eroded earth materials that have been deposited.

3.
Basin:

a low area in which sediments are often deposited.

4.
Channel:

the course or path the water takes in a stream or river.

5.
Meander:

a curve or loop in a channel.
1. What happens to earth materials that have been eroded by a river?
The earth materials were carried away (eroded) by the water and deposited at the bottom of the river (the mouth) by deposition.

2. Which earth materials are deposited first as the water in a river slows down?
Heavier Earth materials like sand are deposited first because the water doesn't have the strength to carry any more but it still has enough strength to carry lighter materials like clay.

3. What happens to water flowing in a river?
It moves back and forth following the lowest channel.

4. How could the Colorado River have formed the Grand Canyon?
It might have eroded the earth materials (rocks) that make up the Colorado Plateau.
Thinking About Erosion and Deposition, p. 18
Investigation 2: Vocabulary, p. 18
What ideas do you have for how the fan of sand got on the sidewalk? Write a note to Josh describing your ideas and giving him some suggestions on where to look for more evidence.

4- writes that the sand got on the sidewalk through a process of erosion and deposition; includes three or more supporting facts such as water erodes earth materials like sand, carrying it to new locations (clue: the fan if sand), and sand in the pile dug from the basement matches that on the sidewalk (the clay is probably mixed with sand, but you can’t see it until the water separates it.)

3- writes that the rain probably washed some of the sand onto the sidewalk; includes two supporting facts.

2- writes that the rain probably washed some of the sand onto the sidewalk; includes one supporting fact.

1- attempts an explanation but gives mostly misconceptions or irrelevant information.

0- does not complete the task
Investigation 2 Response Sheet
I. Question
How does the slope of the stream table affect erosion and deposition?

II. Hypothesis
_______________________________________________

III. Materials
 Tray with earth materials  Standard water source
 Wood angle  Ruler
 1 L container of water  Hand lenses
 Catch basin  Stream-Table Map
Investigation 3, Part 1: Slope
IV. Procedure
1. Setup the standard stream table
2. Half of the groups will elevate their stream tables to create a slope.
3. Keep records of events on the Stream-Table Map.
4. Record time and interesting events as they occur in the stream table

V. Data
Use the Stream-Table Map to record your data.

VI. Conclusion

Investigation 3, Part 2: Flood
I. Question
How does the amount of water that flows through a stream affect erosion and deposition?

II. Hypothesis
___________________________________________________________

III. Materials
 Basin  Stream Table Map
 Ruler  Wood angle
 Tray with earth materials  Standard or Flood water source
 1 L container of water  Hand Lenses
IV. Procedure
1. Half the groups use the standard water source, the others use the flood water source.
2. Label your Stream Table Maps “Standard” or “Flood”
3. Record a timeline of events on a Stream Table Map
4. Draw the Landform on the Stream Table Map
5. Draw the final results of the stream table
Include:
1. Key: symbols for different landforms or earth materials.
2. Measurements: how far the earth materials move.
3. Labels: directions of water movement and the location of the outlet.
6. Compare Maps and Timelines of Flood and Standard Stream Tables

V. Data
Use the Stream-Table Map to record your data.
VI. Conclusion

1. Levee: an embankment along a stream that protects land from flooding. Levees can be natural or constructed

2. Dam: a construction or wall across a river that holds back the water flowing through the river, creating a reservoir or lake.

3. Floodplain: the area around a river that is covered by water flowing over the riverbank during a flood.
Compare and discuss the results of the standard and flooded stream tables

The times it took for events to occur

What was the first event that you observed?

When did water start break through the plateau?

Did a delta form in the stream table? When?

Compare the Stream Table Maps of:
• Flood
• Slope
• Standard
Which are similar? Different?

Thinking about Stream Tables, p. 26
1.What do you think happens to flood waters when they reach another body of water like a lake?

2.Where did you see that happen in your stream table?

3.What might happen in the Grand Canyon when there is a flash flood?

4.What might make water flowing through a stream table channel slow down?

5.What would you expect to see where the slope changes?

6. Why would a river flow faster at its mouth, where the land is flatter?

Stream Tables – Final Thoughts

1.What do you think happens to flood waters when they reach another body of water like a lake?
The water slows and material is deposited. A delta forms.

2.Where did you see that happen in your stream table?
Where the stream reached the pool of water.

3.What might happen in the Grand Canyon when there is a flash flood?
More erosion might occur. The canyon might become deeper.

4.What might make water flowing through a stream table channel slow down?
The slope might become more flat. The water might run into a lake or an ocean.

5.What would you expect to see where the slope changes?
Eroded earth materials would be deposited. A delta or alluvial fan could form.

6. Why would a river flow faster at its mouth, where the land is flatter?
At its mouth a river is probably carrying a greater volume of water because other streams in its drainage basin have joined it along the way.

Investigation 3, Part 3: Vocabulary, p. 33
1. Flood: a very heavy flow of water, which is greater than the normal flow of water and goes over the stream’s normal channel.

2. Flash Flood: the rapid rise and fall of water levels brought on by heavy rainfall over a small area; can be caused by sudden heavy rainfall, dam failure, or the thaw of an ice jam
Investigation 3: Vocabulary, 28
Stream Tables – Final Thoughts, p. 27
33
Response Sheet - Go with the Flow, p.29
4- clearly defines the variables for which Allyson will be testing (slop and flood); describes a procedure: (1) runs a standard stream table or uses the record of the standard used in class, (2) runs a stream table with a slope and records data, (3) runs a stream table with a flood and records data, and (4) runs a stream table with a slope and flood conditions; states that Allyson can determine the changes by comparing the records of her stream-table runs.

3- clearly defines the variables for which Allyson will be testing (slope and flood); describes a procedure that uses a standard, and compares it to other conditions tested (but not as detailed as above); suggests some way to make comparisons.

2- defines at least one variable (slope or flood); describes a procedure that compares stream-table runs; does not tell how to determine the changes.

1- suggests setting up a stream table in which the tray is supported to model a slope and the flood water source is used; does not include a standard run or a way to determine changes.

0- does not complete the task—unrelated information.
1. What is a tectonic plate?
One of the pieces of the earth’s crust.

2. What is an earthquake? What causes them?
Tectonic earthquakes are movement in the earth’s plates as they slide past each other; volcanic earthquakes are when plates pull apart.

3. How were the Black Hills created?
Magma from the mantle pushed up a portion of the crust and formed a bulge.

4. How were the Himalaya Mountains formed?
Two plates pushed directly against each other, creating great folds; this is called uplift.

5. What other mountain ranges were formed this way?
The Appalachian and Rocky Mountains.

6. What are volcanoes?
Areas where magma erupts.

7. What landforms do wave action and glaciers construct?
Barrier islands

Water turns acidic and dissolves rock. Winds blowing sand break down rock
Investigation 3, Part 3: Science stories—Shapes of Earth, p. 34

1. The process of wearing away earth materials by water, wind, or ice is called
a. Erosion.

2. A fan-shaped deposit of earth materials at the mouth of a stream is called a
d. Delta.

3. A student said that deposition causes the most change in landforms. You would tell them…
c. Erosion and deposition, both change the land, because erosion breaks down and removes earth material while deposition settles that materials in a new place.

4. In the stream-table experiment, which of these can increase the amount of erosion and deposition?
a. Use more water.

5. Which of these statements about deposition is correct?
b. Smaller particles usually take longer to settle.

Mark the letter of the correct definition on the line next to the vocabulary term.

6. __C__ Mouth c. Where a river enters another body of water.

7. _E__ Mountain e. High, uplifted are with steep slopes.

8. __A__ Valley a. A low area between hills and mountains, where a river often flows.

9. _B___ Plateau b. Nearly level area that has been uplifted.
10. __D__ Plain d. Nearly level area that has been eroded or where material has been
deposited.

11. __AB__ Canyon ab. The V-shaped valley eroded by a river.

Investigation 2 & 3 Quiz for Landforms
KEY
Inv. 4.1: making a Topographic Map, p. 35
I. Question
How can we make a map that depicts different elevations of a mountain?

II. Hypothesis ______________________________________________________

III. Materials
 Foam set
 Wood dowel
 Mountain Map” sheet
IV. Procedure
1. Work with your group to try to
put together
the model.
2. Use the pieces of the
model
to draw a
topographic map
.
1.Take the
foam
mountain apart.
2.Poke a
pencil
through the hole and line it up with the circle on the
Mountain Map
sheet,
elevation
side up.
3.Line up the
notch
with the solid dark line.
4.Trace
around
the piece. Then repeat for all pieces.
5.Reassemble the
mountain
.
3.
Label
the following features on your
map
:
• Base, Contour Line, Elevation, Peak, Sea Level, Topographic Maps.
along
the line.
5. Write the
elevation
on the
contour
lines on both sides of the mountain.
1. Base: the bottom of the mountain.

2. Contour Line: a line on a topographic map that connects points of equal elevation.

3. Elevation: vertical distance, or height, above sea level.

4. Peak: the highest point of the mountain.

5. Sea level: the average height of the ocean’s surface, zero elevation.

6. Topographic Maps: a map that uses contour lines to show the shape and elevation of the land’s surface.
Inv. 4.1 Vocabulary, p. 37
Inv. 4.2: Drawing a Profile, p.39
I. Question
How can we draw the profile of a mountain from a topographic map?

II. Hypothesis
__________________________________

III. Materials
 Foam Mountain Set
 Profile Sheets
IV. Procedure
1. Fold the map on the AB line.
2. Write the elevations up the left side of the Profile sheet, starting with 11,000ft at the bottom.
3. Line up the AB line with the 11,000ft line on the Profile sheet. Mark with a dot where the contour lines for 11,000ft meet the 11,000ft line on the Profile sheet.
4. Slide the map up to the 11,500ft line on the Profile sheet and mark where it intersects with the 11,500ft contour lines on the map.
5. Continue moving the Mountain Map up the Profile page, marking both points where the lines intersect.
6. Connect the dots as smoothly as possible to make your profile.
7. Label the following features on your profile of Mt. Shasta:
• Base, Peak, Contour interval, The steeper side
Inv. 4.3: Foss Creek Map, p.42
I. Question
What information can we get from a topographic map?

II. Hypothesis
____________________________________

III. Materials
 Ruler
 Profile sheet
 FOSS Creek Map
VI. Conclusion
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Inv. 4.3 Vocabulary, p. 43
1. Benchmark:
A surveyor’s marker usually place permanently in the ground at a known position and elevation.

2. Intermittent Stream:
has water flowing in it only during certain times of the year.

3. Perennial Stream:
always has water flowing in it.
1. Profile:
a side view or cross-section of a landform such as a mountain.
Inv. 4.2 Vocabulary, p. 40
Objective: I will experiment with a model of a mountain and compare its features to the real mountain while creating a topographic map.
Objective: I will create a mountain profile using the topographic map that I created.
Objective: I will use scientific thinking and problem solving to navigate and answer questions about a new topographic map.
I will use my understanding of contour lines, map symbols, and elevation to complete this task.
11,000
11,500
12,000
12,500
13,000
13,500
13,500
13,000
12,500
12,000
11,500
11,000
Mount Shasta
11,000
11,500
12,000
13,000
12,500
13,500
14,000
14,500
15,000
15,500
16,000
2/26/14 P. 9
1. What descriptions in the article identify Mt. Shasta as a volcanic mountain?
There were how fumaroles belching steam/ red lava beds are described.

2. John Muir and his companion Fay were surprised by a violent storm. Describe the storm and how the two explorers survived.
Temperature drop, lightning, gale winds; they huddled near the hot springs for protection and to keep warm.

3. What materials compose Mt. Shasta?
Lava flows and ash.

4. When was it last active?

5. How high is the mountain?
4,317 meters—14,162 feet
Investigation 4, Part 1: Science Stories--
The Story of Mount Shasta, p. 37
Map
Profile
Response Sheet
Start
End
1. What is a contour line?
A line that represents a specific elevation and can be traced to make a complete circle.

2. Why are contour lines oddly shaped?
They follow the shape of the land at an elevation.

3. What kind of information does the scale provide?
Comparison of the map size to the real world.

4. What do some of the map’s colors represent?
Blue is water, brown is contour lines, green is vegetation.

5. Why are symbols and colors standardized?
So everyone can understand them; people all over the world can use them.

6. What are some other interesting features shown on the topographic map?
Investigation 4, Part 2: Science Stories—Topographic Maps, p. 41
Investigation 5 - Birds Eye View
I. Question
How do you use the symbols, color, and textures to read a topographic map?

II. Hypothesis
______________________________________________________________

III. Materials
 Mt. Shasta Topographic map
 Foam Mountain set
 Topographic map symbols

IV. Procedure
1. Make observations about the mountain map including:
a. Which way is east, west, south?
b. What colors do you see on the map?
c. What do the colors represent?
2. Use the Topographic map symbols sheet to find as many of the symbols on the map.

Investigation 5, Part 1: Mt. Shasta Topographic Map, p. 44
V. Data
1. What features or landforms can you identify on Mt. Shasta’s peak?
2. Where would you look for vegetation, such as trees, on Mt. Shasta?
3. What evidence of human activity can you identify on the Mt. Shasta map?
4. Which way does Bolam Creek flow? How do you know?
1. Ridge –
a narrow area of high land between two valleys.

2. Glacier –
a large mass or body of moving ice.

3. Valley –
a low area between higher areas through which a river or stream often flows.

4. Interpret –
to figure out the symbols, textures, colors, and patterns to put together an image of the land covered by the map.

5. Rapids –
part of a river channel where the water moves rapidly over obstacles, such as large boulders.

6. Intermittent Lake –
contains water only during certain times of the year, such as the rainy season.
Landforms 5, Part 1—
Vocabulary, p. 46
Investigation 5, Part 1: Science Stories – National Parks

1. Why do you think it is important to preserve these natural areas?

2. What do you find most interesting about Big Bend National Park in Texas? Everglades in Florida? Glacier Bay in Alaska? Mammoth Cave in Kentucky? Voyageurs in Minnesota?

3. Which Park would you most like to visit?

I. Question
What are the similarities and differences between a topographic map and an aerial photograph?

II. Hypothesis
_________________________________________________

III. Materials
 Topographic Map of Mt. Shasta
 Large Photo of Mt. Shasta
 Small Photo of Mt. Shasta
 Foam Mountain set
 Hand Lens
 Mt. Shasta Questions

IV. Procedure
1. Follow along and complete the Mt. Shasta Questions.
V. Data
Inv. 5.2 Mt. Shasta Aerial Photos, p. 48
VI. Conclusion
______________________________________________________________________
Don't Forget to write your Conclusion.
Response Sheet - Birds Eye View
4- advises Ben to buy the topographic map; explains that although you can see landforms and structures on both the photo and the map, the topographic map provides many more details, including the changing elevations of the land, which you cannot determine accurately from the aerial photo; identifies three matching structures or landforms.

3-advises Ben to buy the topographic map; explains that the topographic map provides more details that the photo; identifies three matching structures or landforms.

2- advises Ben to buy the topographic map; explanation about why may be unclear; identifies at least two matching structures or landforms.

1- advises Ben to buy the photograph and gives some reason why ; identifies at least one matching structure or landform.

0- does not complete task—info is irrelevant.
Inv. 5.2 Vocabulary, p. 50
Inv. 5.3 Death Valley and Grand Canyon Maps, p. 48
FOSS Creek
Map
1. Aerial Photograph – a photo of Earth’s surface taken from an airplane or spacecraft flying above the Earth.

2. Scale – the ratio between measured distances on a map to the actual distance in the real world.

3. Surveyor – a person who measures and marks the distance, elevation, position, and boundaries of land areas.

4. Bar Scale – a ruler line on a topographic map that shows the scale.

5. Representative Fraction – tells the scale of a map as a ratio between distances on a map to distance in the real world.
I. Question
Can you make a map from an aerial photograph?

II. Hypothesis
____________________________________________________

III. Materials
 Death Valley Questions  Grand Canyon Questions
 Grand Canyon Poster  Grand Canyon Photos
 Death Valley Photos  Scratch paper
 Hand lens  Overlay Grid
 Map Grid  Mt. Shasta Photo
 Mt. Shasta Topographic Map  Transparency Pens
 Paper clips  Colored Pencils
 Furnace Creek Topographic Map
 Bright Angel Topographic Map

IV. Procedure
Use the Grand Canyon Questions and the Death Valley Questions as you procedure.

V. Data
Use the Grand Canyon Questions and the Death Valley Questions as you procedure.

VI. Conclusion
___________________________________
1. If the scale of a map is 1:1000, a 10-cm-long field on the map has an actual length of
b. 100 m.

3. On whose map will the drawing of City Hall be larger?
b. City Hall will be larger on Jane’s map.

4. If both maps are unfolded, whose is bigger?
a. Jane’s map will be bigger

5. What letter indicates the highest point on the map?
a. A

6. What is the actual distance between the park entrance and the school?
c. 1 km

7. Which of these statements is correct about the elevation on this map?
d. The elevation between Bear Lookout and point B is the same as the elevation between the school and the park entrance.
Full transcript